ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0295.v1
Online: 26 April 2019 (10:15:30 CEST)
There is limited information on Tamarind production, trade and value added products in Kenya. Of late, there is growing interest in the domestic and export markets due to its multiple uses. The objective of this paper is to review existing literature to identify the missing value chain links which may help catalyse the scaling up of production and commercialization of Tamarind. Selected literature and interviews with traders and extension staff in the Coastal Counties were used to collect information for this study. Tamarind fruits are mainly collected in the wild in semi-arid areas of the country and marketed through informal channels. Mombasa is the terminal market for tamarind from Kenya and Uganda, from where domestic consumers and exporters obtain their supplies. Globally, virtually every part of tamarind tree (pulp, seed, leaves, flowers, bark and roots) has either nutritional, industrial or medicinal value. Tamarind fruit contains substantial levels of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals and essential amino acids making it potentially useful in addressing wide spread malnutrition. Its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-fungal and anti-diabetic properties gives tamarind wider application in conventional and traditional medicine. The findings suggest that scaling up the production and commercialization of tamarind in the country requires both public and private sector investment. The structure of this partnership should consist of the following value chain links: An efficient Seed / seedling system as a source of planting materials; production hubs by farmer associations, government institutions and private farms; aggregation centres for assurance of volumes and quality; processing, value addition and product diversification; an efficient distribution systems of wholesalers and retailers, particularly supermarkets; exporters and consumers. The agenda for further research should include breeding and availing early maturing cultivars demanded by the export market, quality management andvalue addition technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0171.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: additional income; commercialization; cooperatives; smallholder farmer; ICTs; variables
Online: 10 March 2020 (14:06:29 CET)
The study examined key socio-economic characteristics of smallholder farmers identified for their contribution to market participation. These variables include gender, age, marital status, level of education, household size, additional income, membership of cooperative, herd size and use of ICTs. Using a structured questionnaire, primary data was collected from a total of 129 respondents which was analysed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, and presented using cross-tabulations, percentages and count data. The result indicates that age, additional income, cooperative membership and use of ICTs were important variables which contributed to market participation among respondents. The study also made applicable recommendations as the findings may have relevance for future research, policy and practice for commercializing smallholder farmers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: battery; commercialization; markov chain; new technology; techno-economic
Online: 4 May 2018 (10:16:46 CEST)
LiFePO4 (LFP) or Lithium-ion battery with its advantages compared to common current motorcycle battery is an appropriate alternative in substituting wet and dry cell battery. Huge amount of demand of motorcycle along with the battery in Indonesia also make it an interesting product for business. In order to assess the commercial potential for such a new technology, market share needs to be estimated as well as the techno-economic feasibility. Hence, market share prediction using the residents of Surakarta Region and techno-economic analysis using NPV, IRR and PBP indicators have been conducted in this study. Calculation using markov chain method shows that LFP battery tends to dominate the market after certain period. Techno-economic analysis also figures out that the commercialization is feasible in three conditions - first mover, even with market leader and equilibrium point. Therefore, there is a great commercial potential for LFP battery especially in Indonesia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0163.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: agro-input; commercialization index; disaster; fertilizer; resilience; markets; production; seeds system
Online: 9 April 2020 (16:32:39 CEST)
Market-orientation is widely applied to understand the expected interaction of smallholder farmers with input and output markets. Commonly used interchangeably with market participation, it is fast becoming a key milestone for attaining smallholder commercialization. This study introduces the term into the disaster resilience, seed systems and livelihoods context. Using a mixed methods approach, 120 smallholder farmers in a drought-affected district of South Africa were sampled, and information collected for analysis. The result shows that most of the farmers rely on purchased seeds and fertilizers for crop production, and on average sold 62% of their farm produce. A market orientation index (MOI) of 55% was estimated, showing that the farmers were market oriented. The farm size, quantities of seeds and fertilizer purchased, value of crop produced, amount received from crop sales, distance to markets and access to credit were found significant in determining their market orientation. Policy interventions were made to improve access to irrigation, seed varieties and extension delivery in the area. The finding has implications for development efforts at rebuilding after a natural disaster, as well as sourcing food aid from local smallholder farmers by humanitarian actors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: public policy; science policy; technology; technology commercialization; technology transfer; university technology transfer
Online: 27 January 2023 (09:33:38 CET)
This paper presents an alternative conceptualization and definition of technology in the context of university technology transfer. The ambiguity regarding the conceptualization of technology is apparent in the technology transfer literature. An expanded conceptualization of technology potentially opens new approaches to researching the topic of technology transfer. It may also cause policymakers to think more comprehensively about what it means to successfully transfer technologies derived from federally funded research to the private sector for use that benefits the public interest. This paper integrates constructs and ideas in the related literature to provide a new perspective of technology that can support future scholarly research and public policy formulation about technology transfer in general, and university technology transfer specifically. Although the paper focuses on university technology transfer to the private sector in the United States, the insights it presents are relevant to technology transfer more broadly and applicable in other geopolitical contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0504.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: science policy; technology policy; technology; technology maturity level; technology readiness level; technology commercialization; technology transfer; university technology transfer
Online: 27 January 2023 (10:45:25 CET)
This paper presents the results of a study aimed at understanding how technology maturity level influences the incidence of university technology transfer to the private sector. The study examined the topic from the perspective of private sector organizations. It used data from a random sample of patent applications filed with the United States Patent and Trademark Office and a theoretically guided sampling of multiple cases of private sector organizations that contemplated obtaining and assimilating technologies created at universities in the United States. The patent application data were analyzed using nonparametric statistical techniques and the case data were analyzed using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). The findings of the study suggest that the typical maturity level of technologies created at U.S. universities is a TRL-5 or lower on as scale adapted from the NASA technology readiness level (TRL) scale. A technology maturity level of TRL-6 or higher is likely an insufficient but necessary part of at least one unnecessary but sufficient configuration of conditions that tends to result in the occurrence of university technology transfer. However, under certain circumstances, a technology maturity level of at least TRL-6 could be a sufficient but unnecessary condition for the occurrence of university technology transfer. These findings have several important implications. First, they provide support for the notion that university technology transfer is subject to causal complexity. Moreover, it may be possible to increase the incidence of university technology transfer in the United States by implementing public policy and practices that explicitly take technology maturity level into consideration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0193.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: pastoral resilience; co-management concept; decentralization; holistic management; water-shed management plan; commercialization of herding; Common Pool Resources
Online: 14 May 2018 (12:10:23 CEST)
This paper addresses pastoral resilience by drawing out the coping strategies and mechanisms utilized by the Maasai Pastoralists through a food system approach, based on the study findings of an anthropological study of pastoralism in Laikipia County, Rift Valley, Kenya. This paper is guided by the specific objectives aimed at establishing actors and their roles, and describing the institutional settings and changes in pastoralism. Using a new institutionalism approach, the paper focuses not only on the actors and their roles in pastoralism but also on how internal and external forces regulate access and use of common pool resources (CPRs) resulting in sustainability of the food system. We argue that this has an impact on the practice of pastoralism that continually defines and redefine the actors’ roles as well as elicit the value of pastoral economies and benefits accrued to a wide range of actors hence reinforcing pastoral resilience. The study also identified institutional settings and changes that lead to pastoral survival resulting from the country’s devolved system of governance. Data collection was through in-depth interviews, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and unstructured observations in the pastoral regions. The findings reveal that actors at the household, state, non-state, and service providers have developed varied coping strategies and mechanisms that sustain pastoralism. The study also identified institutional settings and changes that promote pastoral resilience; notably, private land ownership patterns, co-management of livestock markets, commercialization of herding, decentralization of livestock services, holistic management of pasturelands and the use of water-shed management plans. As a result, increased scholarship and advocacy in regards to the concept of co-management of livestock markets, is recommended as a means of understanding pastoral resilience that the food system exhibits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0297.v1
Subject: Keywords: fuel ethanol; renewable energy; biobased feedstocks; lignocellulosic biomass; fermentation process; processing options; commercialization; production status; climate change; environmental security
Online: 17 November 2021 (10:21:59 CET)
Ethanol produced from various biobased sources (bioethanol) has been gaining high attention lately due to its potential to cut down net emissions of carbon dioxide while reducing burgeoning world dependence on fossil fuels. Global ethanol production has increased more than six-fold from 18 billion liters at the turn of the century to 110 billion liters in 2019 (1,2). Sugar cane and corn have been used as the major feedstocks for ethanol production. Lignocellulosic biomass has recently been considered as another potential feedstock. This paper reviews recent developments and current status of commercial production of ethanol across the world. The review includes the ethanol production processes used for each type of feedstock, both currently practiced at commercial scale and newly developed technologies, and production trends in various regions and countries in the world.