CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0113.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; ARDS; bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)
Online: 9 June 2020 (03:30:05 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), mainly affects the respiratory system with some patients rapidly progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The most common symptoms of the patients are fever, cough, dyspnea, myalgia, and fatigue. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab specimens tested by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are the most commonly used methods to diagnose COVID-19. Herein, we investigate and discuss a young case of COVID-19, without any pre-existing medical conditions, whose both nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab tests of SARS-CoV-2 were negative in the prodromal phase. However, after three days, with severe dyspnea and rapidly progressed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the case was identified as infected by COVID-19 by testing bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The patient was intubated in the intensive care unit (ICU) but expired on the fourth day. This case shows the importance of active and accurate monitoring of the patients showing COVID-19 symptoms. Although the BALF test has a higher exposure risk, it is considered more accurate and recommended if performed by an expert operator.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0008.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: murine herpesvirus-68; MHV-68; bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; BAL; proteomics; oxidative stress
Online: 3 September 2018 (04:47:19 CEST)
Murine herpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) productively infects the mouse lungs, exhibiting a complex pathology characteristic of both acute viral infections and chronic respiratory diseases. We sought to discover proteins differentially expressed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from mice infected with MHV-68. Mice were infected intranasally with MHV-68. After 9 days, as the lytic phase of infection resolved, differential BAL proteins were identified by 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Of 23 unique proteins, acute phase proteins, vitamin A transport, and oxidative stress response factors Pdx6 and EC-SOD (Sod3) were enriched. Correspondingly, iNOS2 was induced in lung tissue by 7 days post infection. Oxidative stress was partly a direct result of MHV-68 infection, as reactive oxygen species (ROS) were induced in cultured murine NIH3T3 fibroblasts and human lung A549 cells infected with MHV-68. Finally, mice were infected with a recombinant MHV-68 co-expressing inflammatory cytokine murine interleukin 6 (IL6) showed exacerbated oxidative stress and soluble type I collagen characteristic of tissue recovery. Thus, oxidative stress appears to be a salient feature of MHV-68 pathogenesis, in part caused by lytic replication of virus and IL6. Proteins and small molecules in lung oxidative stress networks therefore may provide new therapeutic targets to ameliorate respiratory virus infections.