REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0444.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; bacteriome; immune system
Online: 27 February 2023 (06:15:38 CET)
The Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) first emerged in 2019 in China and has resulted in millions of human morbidities and mortalities across the globe. It has been shown that this novel virus originated in animals, mutated, and made the cross-species jump to humans. At the time of this communication, the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may be on way to an endemic form, however the threat of the virus is more for susceptible (older people and immunocompromised) people. The human body has more bacterial cells than its own, thus making us more bacterial than humans. As a consequence, the bacteriomes in the human body heavily influence human health and disease. The bacteriomes in the body and the immune system seem to be in constant association during bacterial and viral infections. In this review, we identify various bacterial spp. in major bacteriomes (oral, nasal, lung, and gut) of the body in healthy humans and compare them with dysbiotic bacteriomes of COVID-19 patients. We try to identify key bacterial spp. that have a positive effect on the functionality of the immune system and human health. These select bacterial spp. could be used as potential probiotics to counter or prevent COVID-19 infections. In addition, we try to identify key metabolites produced by probiotic bacterial spp. that could have potential anti-viral effects against SARS-CoV-2. These metabolites could be subject to future therapeutic trials to determine their anti-viral efficacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: bacteria; bacteriome; carcinoma; microbiome; mouth; smokeless; snuff; tobacco
Online: 6 March 2017 (07:18:27 CET)
Smokeless tobacco (ST) products vary significantly in their oral carcinogenicity. Much is known about the differences in chemical, but not bacterial, constituents of these products. In this study, we explore the composition and function of the bacteriome in ST products from 4 countries using q-PCR and 16S rRNA-based next generation sequencing. The bacterial load (16S rRNA copies/gram) was lowest in Swedish snus (3.4E+6) and highest in Yemeni shammah (6.6E+11). A total of 491 species-level taxa, many of which are potentially novel, belonging to 178 genera and 11 phyla were identified. Species richness and diversity were highest for Swedish snus and lowest for Yemeni shammah. Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Oceanobacillus spp. were the most abundant in American snuff; species of Pseudomonas, Massilia, Propionibacterium, Puniceispirillum and Gloeothece predominated in Swedish snus. In Sudanese toombak, Facklamia, Desemzia, Atopostipes and Lysinibacillus spp. accounted for the majority of the bacteriome. Yemeni shammah exclusively contained Bacillus spp. PICRUSt functional prediction showed that genes encoding cadmium/zinc and nickel transport systems were enriched in the presumptively “high carcinogenicity” products. The bacteriome of ST products thus differed qualitatively, quantitatively and functionally. The relevance of these differences, particularly with respect to nickel and cadmium, to oral carcinogenesis warrants further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0308.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Xenobiotic; Drug; Oral fibro epithelial polyps; Rothia mucilaginosa; Bacteriome
Online: 16 November 2022 (12:45:26 CET)
The proportion of human cells to the microbial cell is 1:1. These procaryotes use efflux pumps and enzymes to prevent cellular intoxication of ions and compounds respectively. There is promising evidence on the role of the gut microbiome and its enzymes in metabolizing xenobiotics. The genetic potential of oral bacteria in drug and xenobiotic metabolism is yet to be unveiled. This study aimed to characterize the bacteriome associated with oral fibroepithelial polyps (FEP) and to predict the genetic potential. A representative sub-sample of 22 clinically diagnosed oral FEP (the control group) was selected from a main case-control study. Amplification of nucleotides of extracted DNA from frozen tissues was performed for the V1 to V3 region and sequencing of the amplicon with Illumina’s 2 X 300–bp chemistry. Classification of high-quality nonchimeric merged reads was done to the species level with a prioritized BLASTN-based algorithm. Downstream compositional analysis was performed with QIIME (Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology). Functional prediction of bacteriome was obtained by PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States). Rothia mucilaginosa, Streptococcus mitis, Gamella haemolysans, Streptococcus sp. oral taxon 431, and Rothia dentocariosa accounted for the top five taxa among 810 bacterial species according to the percentage of average relative abundance. Rothia mucilaginosa was elevated statistically significantly (p< 0.05). The genetic potential of xenobiotics and drug metabolism catalyzed by the P450 enzymes was observed for the first time as an attribute of bacteriome associated with oral FEP tissues dominated by R. mucilaginosa. This finding needs further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: 16S rRNA; bacteria; bacteriome; carcinoma; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing; microbiome; mouth; squamous cell
Online: 6 March 2017 (04:47:15 CET)
Studies on the possible association between bacteria and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain inconclusive, largely due to methodological variations/limitations. The objective of this study was to characterize the species composition as well as functional attributes of the bacteriome associated with OSCC. DNA obtained from 20 fresh OSCC biopsies (cases) and 20 deep-epithelium swabs (matched control subjects) were sequenced for the V1-V3 region using Illumina’s 2x300 bp chemistry. High quality, non-chimeric merged reads were classified to species level using a prioritized BLASTN-algorithm. Downstream analyses were performed using QIIME, PICRUSt, and LEfSe. Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum was the most significantly overrepresented species in the tumors followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Campylobacter sp. Oral taxon 44, while Streptococcus mitis, Rothia mucilaginosa and Haemophilus parainfluenzae were the most significantly abundant in the controls. Functionally, genes involved in bacterial mobility, flagellar assembly, bacterial chemotaxis and LPS synthesis were enriched in the tumors while those responsible for DNA repair and combination, purine metabolism, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, ribosome biogenesis and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis were significantly associated with the controls. This is the first epidemiological evidence for association of F. nucleatum and P. aeruginosa with OSCC. Functionally, an “inflammatory bacteriome” is enriched in OSSC.