ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: anoikis; Low-grade glioma; signature; prognosis; immune microenvironment
Online: 22 September 2022 (10:38:43 CEST)
Low-grade glioma (LGG) is a highly aggressive disease in the skull. On the other hand, anoikis, a specific form of cell death induced by the loss of cell contact with the extracellular matrix, plays a key role in cancer metastasis. In this study，anoikis-related genes (ANRGs) were used to identify LGG subtypes and to construct a prognostic model for LGG patients. In addition, we explored the immune microenvironment and enrichment pathways between different subtypes. We constructed an anoikis-related gene signature using the TCGA cohort and investigated the differences in clinical features, mutational landscape, immune cell infiltration, etc. between different risk groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the characteristics of ANRGs in the high-risk group were associated with poor prognosis in LGG patients. The risk score was identified as an independent prognostic factor. The high-risk group had higher immune cell infiltration, tumor mutation load, immune checkpoint gene expression, and ICB treatment response. Functional analysis showed that these high- and low-risk groups had different immune statuses and drug sensitivity. Risk scores were used together with LGG clinicopathological features to construct a nomogram, and DCA analysis showed that the model could enable patients to benefit from clinical treatment strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0125.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: dimerization; miRNA; motility; anoikis; chaperon; PTEN; FIP200; LKB1; PI3K; regulation
Online: 8 May 2018 (09:07:58 CEST)
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and its close paralogue, proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2), are key regulators of aggressive spreading and metastasis of cancer cells. While targeted small-molecule inhibitors of FAK and PYK2 are showing promising antitumor activity, their clinical long-term efficacy may be undermined by the strong capacity of cancer cells to evade anti-kinase drugs. In healthy cells, the expression and/or function of FAK and PYK2 is tightly controlled through modulation of gene expression, competing alternatively spliced forms, non-coding RNAs, and proteins that directly or indirectly affect kinase activation or protein stability. The molecular factors involved are frequently deregulated in cancer cells. Here, we review the endogenous mechanisms controlling FAK and PYK2, and discuss how these mechanisms could inspire or improve anticancer therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2044.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: epithelial-mesenchymal transition; cytoskeleton; extracellular matrix remodeling; ovarian cancer; anoikis resistance; metastasis
Online: 30 August 2023 (07:10:00 CEST)
Background: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biological process where epithelial cells lose their adhesive properties and gain invasive, metastatic, and mesenchymal properties. Maintaining the balance between epithelial and mesenchymal stage is essential for tissue homeo-stasis. Many of the genes promoting mesenchymal transformation has been identified; however, our understanding of the genes responsible for maintaining the epithelial phenotype is limited. Our objective was to identify genes responsible for maintaining the epithelial phenotype and in-hibiting EMT. Methods: RNA seq was performed using an vitro model of EMT. CTGF expres-sion was determined by qPCR and Western blot analysis. Knockout of CTGF was done using the CTGF sgRNA CRISPR/CAS9. Tumorigenic potential was determined using NCG mice. Results: Knocked-out of CTGF in epithelial ovarian cancer cells leads to the acquisition of functional characteristics associated with the mesenchymal phenotype such as Anoikis resistance, cytoskel-eton remodeling, increased cell stiffness, and acquisition of invasion and tumorigenic capacity. Conclusions: We identified CTGF is an important regulator of the epithelial phenotype, and its loss is associated with early cellular modifications required for EMT. We describe a novel role for CTGF, regulating cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix interactions necessary for conserva-tion of epithelial structure and function. These findings provide a new window to understand the early stages on mesenchymal transformation
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0984.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Anoikis; Adult stem cells; Somatic cells; Reprograming; suspension-induced stem cell transition; single cell RNA sequence
Online: 18 September 2023 (03:58:54 CEST)
Adult stem cells (ASCs) can be cultured with difficulty from most tissues, often requiring chemical or transgenic modification to achieve adequate quantities. We show here that mouse primary fibroblasts grown in suspension change from the elongated and flattened morphology observed under standard adherent culture conditions generating rounded cells with large nuclei and scant cytoplasm expressing the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) marker (Sca1; Ly6A) within 24hrs. Based on this initial observation, we describe here a suspension culture method that, irrespective of the lineage used, mouse fibroblast, primary human somatic cells (fibroblasts, hepatocytes and keratinocytes), is capable of generating a high yield of cells in spheroid form which display expression of ASCs surface markers, circumventing the anoikis which often occurs at this stage. Moreover, mouse fibroblasts-derived spheroids can be differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. Analysis of single cell RNA sequence data identified 8 distinct cell clusters with one in particular comprising approximately 10% of the cells showing high levels of proliferative capacity expressing high levels of genes related to MSCs and self-renewal as well as extracellular matrix (ECM). We believe the rapid, high-yield generation of proliferative, multi-potent ASC-like cells by the process we term suspension-induced stem cell transition (SIST) could have significant implications for regenerative medicine.