ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0511.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.; essential oils; microencapsulated products; antibacterial activity; agricultural pathogens; foodborne pathogens; gram-positive bacteria; gram-negative bacteria
Online: 30 August 2022 (07:02:54 CEST)
Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. is a powerful medicinal plant that has been used as traditional medicine to cure respiratory problems, pain, and inflammation in China, Indonesia, Thailand and other Asian countries by using the crude extracts. The objective of this research is to identify phytochemical composition of Z. cassumunar Roxb. and to analyze antibacterial activity of crude extract, purified compounds, and their microencapsulated products of Rhizome Z. cassumunar Roxb. Identification of phytochemical composition in crude extract of rhizome Z. cassumunar Roxb. was achieved by chromatography-mass spectrophotometer. The major phytochemical composition in crude extract of Z. cassumunar Roxb. is essential oils, including terpinen4-ol (37.7%), β-pinene (20.8%), and (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)but-1-ene (13.3%). Crude extract of Z. cassumunar Roxb. was purified with silica gel flash column chromatography, resulting two purified compounds. The antibacterial activity of crude extract, purified compounds, and their microencapsulated products of Rhizome Z. cassumunar Roxb. were evaluated against agricultural and foodborne pathogens by using disc agar diffusion and broth microdilution techniques. All of the samples studied (crude extracts, purified compounds, and microencapsulated of Z. cassumunar Roxb.) were effective against all the bacteria. Based on the results of the disc-diffusion assay suggested that amongst the samples studied, purified compounds (compound 1 and 2) and microencapsulated purified compounds (compound 1 and 2) exhibited more effective against all the bacteria compared to the crude extracts. Antibacterial activity of the rhizome of Z. cassumunar Roxb. was contributed mainly by the essential oils components as the active compounds. Gram-negative bacteria (X. oryzae, X. translucens, Pseudomonas spp, E. coli, and S. typhimurium) appeared to the most resistant to the crude extracts, purified compounds, and microencapsulated of Z. cassumunar Roxb. compared to the gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus, B. cereus, and L. monocytogenes). Microencapsulated of the tested samples (crude extract, purified compound 1, and purified compound 2) of the rhizome Z. cassumunar Roxb. exhibited high antibacterial activity with no significantly different with the tested samples without microencapsulation. These results suggest potential antibacterial properties of Z. cassumunar Roxb., which useful for agricultural plant health, food preservation, natural therapies, and pharmaceuticals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Zingiber officinale; 6-Shogaol; 6-gingerol; hematopoiesis; hepcidin; anaemia
Online: 7 September 2021 (12:08:59 CEST)
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) evolves due to genomic instability, dysregulated signalling pathway and overproduction of inflammatory markers. Reactive oxygen species contribute to the inflammatory response, which causes gene damage, cellular remodelling and fibrosis. MDS can be a debilitating condition, and management options in patients with MDS aim to improve cytopenias, delay disease progression, and enhance quality of life. High serum ferritin levels, a source of iron for reactive oxygen species production, correlate with a higher risk of progression to acute myeloid leukaemia, and iron overload is compounded by blood transfusions given to improve anaemia. 6-shogaol is a natural phenolic compound formed when ginger is exposed to heat and/or acidic conditions, and it has been shown to possess anti-tumour activity against leukaemia cell lines and antioxidant effects. This narrative review assessed the potential benefits of this phytochemical in lower-risk MDS patients through examining the current evidence on the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of ginger and 6-shogaol.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0102.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Zingiber; ginger; essential oil; rhizome; herbal remedies; traditional healing systems; food preservatives
Online: 16 November 2017 (04:38:52 CET)
Plants of the genus Zingiber (Family Zingiberaceae) are widely used throughout the world as food and medicinal plants. They represent very popular herbal remedies in various traditional healing systems; in particular, rhizome of Zingiber spp. plants has a long history of ethnobotanical uses because of a plethora of curative properties. Antimicrobial activity of rhizome essential oil has been extensively confirmed in vitro and attributed to its chemical components, mainly consisting in monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as α-zingiberene, ar-curcumene, β-bisabolene and β-sesquiphellandrene. In addition, gingerols have been identified as the major active components in the fresh rhizome, whereas shogaols, dehydrated gingerol derivatives, are the predominant pungent constituents in dried rhizome. Zingiber spp. may thus represent a promising and innovative source of natural alternatives to chemical food preservatives. This approach would meet the increasing concern of consumers aware of the potential health risks associated with the conventional antimicrobial agents in food. This narrative review aims providing a literature overview on Zingiber spp. plants, their cultivation, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents and biological activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0371.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Network pharmacology; GO enrichment analysis; Key target validation; Hyperlipidemia; Hepatic steatosis; herbal combination; combinational effect; Arum ternata; Poria cocos; Zingiber officinale
Online: 20 January 2023 (06:41:44 CET)
The network pharmacology (NP) approach is a valuable novel methodology for understanding the complex pharmacological mechanisms of medicinal herbs. In addition, various in silico analysis techniques combined with the NP can improve the understanding of various issues in natural product research. This study assessed the therapeutic effects of Arum ternata (AT), Poria cocos (PC), and Zingiber officinale (ZO) on hyperlipidemia after network pharmacologic analysis. A protein–protein interaction (PPI) network of forty-one key targets was analyzed to discover core functional clusters of the herbal compounds. The KEGG pathway and gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis identified significant categories of hypolipidemic mechanisms. The STITCH database indicated a high connection with several statin drugs deduced by the similarity in targets. AT, PC, and ZO regulated the genes related to the energy metabolism and lipogenesis in HepG2 cells loaded with free fatty acids (FFAs). Furthermore, a combinational effect of the mixture of three herbs was found. The herbal combination exerted superior efficacy compared to a single herb, particularly in regulating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1). In conclusion, the network pharmacologic approach was used to assess potential targets of the herbal combination for treatment. Experimental data from FFAs-induced HepG2 cells suggested that the combination of AT, PC, and ZO might attenuate hyperlipidemia and its associated hepatic steatosis.