Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: neighborhood committee; collective responsibility; Baojia system; COVID-19 pandemic; Wu Lien-teh; China
Online: 27 April 2020 (03:07:12 CEST)
Managing epidemics need to unite each individual of the nations. Lockdown is an essential strategy to fatal and threatening epidemic. All of the citizens should realize that each of people has a responsibility to support the public health crisis. How to organize individual to fight against the epidemic plaque depends each of them. This essay discussed the COVID-19 pandemic relevant self-governance of community from a historical perspective in China. Self-governance of neighborhood committee and community residential office in urban and rural helped to control the COVID-19 pandemic in the communities in China. Co-operation and collective responsibility of citizens and community support is a critical condition to prevent epidemic. The community self-governance can track back Qin Dynasty in China history. It established baojia system to maintain social control for thousand years. Now, the community-based system, baojia system is becoming more autonomous for local citizenship and socialized governance in China. We reviewed a historical pneumonia plaque in North China in 1911. Chinese doctor, Wu Lien-teh (伍連德) confronted the epidemic crisis with many measures such as lockdown, quarantine, the wearing of mask, setup mobile hospitals, travel restriction, the cremation of victims, and border control. Dr. Wu made effort to establish the modern public health service in China. We think that the combination of culture background of China community with modern public healthcare system determinedly played important role to control the COVID-19 pandemic.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: spinal disc herniation, dog, NADPH diaphorase, the aging-related NADPH diaphorase body, megaloneurite, homogeneous formazan globule, intermedial collateral pathway
Online: 19 February 2020 (11:47:26 CET)
Neuronal lesion or injury is a traditional approach to investigate neural circuit. Is any new neural pathway or new neurodegeneration related central nerve system injury? Spinal disc herniation can cause the spinal cord injury. However, the histological examination is still lack. It happened that a case of spinal disc herniation of a 10-year old dog was examined with NADPH diaphorase (N-d) histology. We did not find the N-d neurodegenerative aberrant in the tissue of the mid-rostral lumber segment besides the metamorphoses by the compression of the disc herniation. However, the severe neuropathological changes majorly occurred in the lumbosacral spinal cord. We found more diverse neurodegenerative alterations: the aging-related N-d body (ANB), megaloneurite and N-d homogeneous formazan globule in the lumbosacral spinal cord. We also found that a new circuit pathway (intermedial collateral pathway) showed by a megaloneurite between the lateral collateral pathway and the medial collateral pathway. The enormous notch caused by spinal disc herniation located at the mid-rostral lumber segments. The aging-related neurodegeneration occurred the specific lumbosacral segments. The homogeneous formazan globule was round or oval homogeneous N-d positivity which distributed in the gray matter and dorsal column. In the medulla oblongata, ANBs were revealed in the gracile nucleus, nucleus reticularis lateralis (ventrolateral spinal trigeminal nucleus) and middle of the spinal trigeminal nucleus.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0148.v1
Subject: Keywords: Music-making; Cerebrospinal fluid; Myodural bridge; Somatic rhythmic motion; CSF-static compartment
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:34:58 CET)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting neurons (CSF-N) located in the surface of both brain ventricles and the central canal (cc) in the spinal cord. The cc and CSF maintain a proliferative niche for neural progenitor cells and play a vital role in development of the brain. The CSF circulates in the ventricles and the subarachnoid spaces with the CSF rhythmic flow: cardiac pulsation and respiratory fluctuation. A new concept of CSF motion may be contrary to the classical one that the direction of CSF motion may vary in direction and may be dynamic in its location. The CSF pressure may also depend on the body position. Moderate music-making has been considered a potential approach for rehabilitative and restorative therapy of brain dysfunctions. Recently, we find that the CSF-Ns are present in both the interior CFS in the cc and also exterior CSF around the surface of the spinal cord. We hypothesize that CSF-N as mechanical sensors in the spinal cord could sense motion of the spinal cord. The myodural bridge is a ligament connecting a pair of deep, upper-neck muscles to the dura mater, which envelops the arachnoid mater and contains the CSF surrounding the brain and the spinal cord. We figure out the term “CSF-static compartment” and classify CSF storage location as rostral pool and caudal pool to demonstrate our hypothesis. We presume that the somatic body movement with music-making and rehabilitation-based interventions would orchestrate the CSF motion with head movement, myodural bridge stretching and puling as well as spinal bending.