ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome; post-COVID syndrome; postural orthostatic tachycardia; microcirculation; immune system
Online: 20 September 2022 (03:37:00 CEST)
A Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating chronic disease of unknown aetiology under growing interest now in view of the increasingly recognized post-COVID syndrome as a new entity with similar clinical presentation. We performed the first cross-sectional study of ME/CFS in community population in Russia and then described and compared some clinical and pathophysiological characteristics of ME/CFS and post-COVID syndrome as neuroimmune disorders. Of the cohort of 76 individuals who suggested themselves suffering from ME/CFS 56 subsequently were confirmed as having CFS/ME according to ≥1 of the 4 most commonly used case definition. Of the cohort of 14 individuals with post-COVID-19 syndrome 14 met diagnostic criteria for ME/CFS. The prevalence of clinically expressed and subclinical anxiety and depression in ME / CFS and post-COVID ME/CFS did not differ significantly from that in healthy individuals. Severity of anxiety / depressive symptoms did not correlate with the severity of fatigue neigther in ME / CFS nor in post-COVID ME/CFS, but the positive correlation was found between the severity of fatigue and 20 other symptoms of ME / CFS related to the domains of “post-exertional exhaustion”, “immune dysfunction”, “sleep disturbances”, "dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system", "neurological sensory / motor disorders" and "pain syndromes". Immunological abnormalities were identified in 12/12 patients with ME / CFS according to the results of laboratory testing. The prevalence of postural orthostatic tachycardia assessed by the active standing test was 37.5% in ME / CFS and 75.0% in post-COVID ME/CFS (the latter was higher than in healthy controls, p = 0.02) There was a more pronounced increase in heart rate starting from the 6th minute of the test in post-COVID ME/CFS compared with the control group. Assessment of the functional characteristics of microcirculation by laser doppler flowmetry revealed obvious and very similar changes in ME/CFS and post-COVID ME/CFS compared to the healthy controls. The identified pattern corresponded to the hyperemic form of microcirculation disorders, usually observed in acute inflammatory processes or in deficiency of systemic vasoconstriction influences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: antineuronal autoantibodies; autoimmune diseases; autoimmune encephalitis; food antigens; kynurenine pathway; microbiota; prolactin; cytokines; schizophrenia; stress
Online: 3 November 2020 (12:53:38 CET)
The review analyzes a possible role of autoimmune processes in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and evolution of concepts on this issue from its origin to present. Risks of autoimmune processes causing schizophrenia are associated with several factors: an impaired functioning of dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems in the brain, kynurenine pathway disorder with overproduction of quinolinic, anthranilic and kynurenic acids (possibly altering both neurons and T-regulators), increased intestinal permeability, as well as food antigens’ effects, stress and infections with various pathogens at different stages of ontogenesis. An increase in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines as well as a decrease in the levels of anti-inflammatory ones also may contribute to schizophrenia risks. Schizophrenia often occurs in those patients having various autoimmune diseases and their first-degree relatives. Cases of schizophrenia resulted from autoimmune pathogenesis (including autoimmune encephalitis caused by autoantibodies against various neuronal antigens) are characterized by quite severe cognitive and psychotic symptoms and less favorable prognosis. This severe course may result from the chronic immune damage of the neuronal receptors such as NMDA, GABA, and others and depend on hyperprolactinemia, induced by antipsychotics, but aggravating autoimmune processes [with 2 tables, 4 figures, bibliography: 99 references].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0224.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: fibromyalgia; myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome; autoantibodies; autoimmunity
Online: 13 December 2022 (02:47:48 CET)
(1) Background: Recent studies provide some evidence for the contribution of antibody-mediated autoimmune mechanisms to the nature of fibromyalgia (FM) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Much attention was paid to the autoantibodies (AAb) targeting G protein-coupled receptors as natural components of the immune system. However, natural AAb network is much more extensive, and has not been previously investigated in these disorders; (2) Methods: The enzyme immunoassays ELI-Viscero-Test and ELI-Neuro-Test were used to determine changes in serum content of a 33 natural AAb to neural, organ-specific and non-tissue-specific autoantigens a) in 11 FM patients with comorbid ME/CFS; b) in 11 ME/CFS patients without FM; c) in 11 healthy controls. Individual autoantibody profiles and their correlation with some clinical symptoms were analyzed. (3) Results: both patients with ME/CFS and ME/CFS+FM were characterized by more frequent and pronounced deviations in the immunoreactivity to GABA-receptors than healthy controls. Although the level of other natural AAb did not differ between study groups, AAb correlation signatures were changing in patients compared to healthy controls. Both in patients and healthy controls the level of natural AAb to various neural and tissue-specific antigens correlated with the severity of fatigue, bodily pain, depression, anxiety, physical and mental-health related quality of life. Notably, that widely different correlation patterns were observed between study groups. (4) Conclusions: Findings from this pilot study provide some evidence that the homeostasis of autoimmune relationships, which are possibly a physiological part of our immune system, may break down in FM and ME/CFS. The correlation of disease-induced perturbations in individual AAb profiles with some clinical symptoms may arise from the immune system's ability to reflect qualitative and quantitative changes in antigenic composition of the body.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: sarcoidosis; granulomatous diseases; vimentin; mutated vimentin; autoantibodies; autoimmunity
Online: 7 July 2022 (04:44:21 CEST)
There is a need to further characterize the antibody response to vimentin in relation to it possible involvement in pathogenicity of sarcoidosis, and other lung disorders. Objectives: We investigated serum samples from patients with sarcoidosis, healthy and diseased control subjects to evaluate levels and frequency of these antibodies. Materials and methods. A retrospective-prospective comparative study was performed in the years 2014-2017. 188 serum samples were examined for presence of autoantibodies to mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV). Patients with elevated anti-MCV levels were tested for antibodies to a cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) and citrullinated vimentin (anti-Sa). Additionally, sera from 93 patients with sarcoidosis and 40 healthy subjects were evaluated for the presence of autoantibodies to non-modified vimentin. In all cases ELISA assays was used. The results were considered statistically significant at p-value less than 0.05. Results of the study. The high concentrations of anti-MCV. antibodies were more frequent in patients with sarcoidosis (40.9% of the cases, 38/93), compared to the control groups (23.6% and 25.0% of cases, respectively). In sarcoidosis, clinical symptoms similar to the autoimmune pathology were described. A moderate positive correlation between the anti-MCV and anti-Sa antibodies (r = 0.66) was found in 13 patients with sarcoidosis. There was no significant difference between the levels of the anti-MCV and the anti-CCP in patients with non-infectious lung diseases and the healthy control group. Conclusion. A high level of anti-MCV antibodies in patients with sarcoidosis characterizes the presence of an autoimmune process that is not related to citrullination. The absence of a significant difference in the level of antibodies to modifications of vimentin in patients with sarcoidosis may indicate the autoimmune process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1019.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: vitamin D; SARS-CoV-2; outcome; ferritin; d-dimers; fibrinogen
Online: 15 September 2023 (02:40:24 CEST)
Severe infection from the SARS-CoV-2 virus is associated with various clinical findings, including hematological manifestations. Thrombotic events or a tendency to develop thrombotic events also characterize severe COVID-19 disease and may lead to death. Vitamin D is known to have immunomodulating properties and to enhance the body defense system against invading pathogens and to have immunostimulatory properties as far as the innate immune response is concerned. The aim was to measure 25(OH)D3 levels in patients hospitalized for severe COVID-19 infection, to explore the relationship between 25(OH)D3 and outcome and to investigate the relationship between 25(OH)D3 levels, CRP, ferritin, d-dimers and fibrinogen levels in this cohort. In a cohort of 88 patients hospitalized for severe infection from the SARS-CoV-2 virus and a control group matched for age and sex the levels of 25(OH)D3 were measured. In the same cohort CRP, ferritin, d-dimer and fibrinogen levels were also analyzed. Levels of 25(OH)D3 were 17.36±8.80 ng/ml (mean±SD) as compared with 24.34±10.34 ng/ml, in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and the control group, respectively, p<0.001 (Student’s t test). The levels of 25(OH)D3 were found to be significantly related to outcome, i.e. survival as opposed to non-survival, as more patients with 25(OH)D3 deficiency (0-10 ng/ml) and insufficiency (10-20 ng/ml) had a fatal outcome as compared with those with vitamin D sufficiency, p<0.001, chi-square test, p<0.001, Fischer’s exact test. Levels of 25(OH)D3 were inversely related to CRP, ferritin, d-dimer and fibrinogen levels, p<0.001, linear regression analysis, beta coefficient of variation, -0.176, -0,160, -0.178, -0.158, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency observed in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection was related to the disease outcome. Increased ferritin levels, and increased thrombotic markers, namely d-dimer and fibrinogen levels were observed in the patients and their concentration was also inversely related to vitamin D. We showed that vitamin D levels were low in hospitalized patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and also inversely related to CRP, ferritin, d-dimer and fibrinogen concentration. It is proposed that vitamin D levels may be an index of severity in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection.