ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0199.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: micropositioners; reinforcement learning; disturbance observer; deep deterministic policy gradient
Online: 15 March 2022 (07:58:27 CET)
The robust control of high precision electromechanical systems, such as micropositioners, is challenging in terms of the inherent high nonlinearity, the sensitivity to external interference, and the complexity of accurate identification of the model parameters. To cope with these problems, this work investigates a disturbance observer-based deep reinforcement learning control strategy to realize high robustness and precise tracking performance. Reinforcement learning has shown great potential as optimal control scheme, however, its application in micropositioning systems is still rare. Therefore, embedded with the integral differential compensator (ID), deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG) is utilized in this work with the ability to not only decrease the state error but also improves the transient response speed. In addition, an adaptive sliding mode disturbance observer (ASMDO) is proposed to further eliminate the collective effect caused by the lumped disturbances. The sterling performance is revealed with intensive tracking simulation experiments and demonstrates the improvement in the accuracy and response time of the controller.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0388.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: GDNF; SOX1; CAFs; senescence; aging cell; methylation; tumour; glioma
Online: 24 May 2020 (16:53:56 CEST)
The extrinsic and intrinsic factors are essential in glioma initiation. Many extrinsic factors (UV, radiation, food, etc.) and intrinsic factors (proteins, hormones, ageing, DNA and RNA damages, etc.) was reported to being responsible for glioma initiation and progression. However, the cell responsible for glioma origin is still unknown. Many research papers have reported that glioma stem cells, senescent cells, injured cells, and death neurons are the cells of glioma origin. However, gene mutation and oncogene protein overexpression doesn’t occur only in cancer but during life evolution. The source of genetic mutations has become a fundamental issue in understanding its role in the initiation of glioma. The glioma is the precise coordination of several distant factors that work together in the initiation and development of glioma. However, the role and effects of the genes (GDNF and SOX1) on cancer cells are well known, but their gene mutation origin is controversial. Several models and theories have been proposed to explain the origins of GDNF and SOX1 genetic mutations and epigenetic modification related to cancer. Our aim in this review is to clear that incertitude about glioma origin (gene mutation and epigenetic modifications) and those factors involved in glioma initiation and recurrence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0167.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: N-n-Butyl-4-(N′,N′-dihydroxyethylamino)-1,8-naphthalimide; mono-substituted; di-substituted; synthesis, crystal structure; fluorescence
Online: 23 May 2017 (08:10:02 CEST)
A series of novel N-n-butyl-1,8-naphthalimide derivatives were synthesized via a three-step reaction involving nucleophilic substitution and acylation. All of the compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, and elemental analysis, and the crystal structure of N-n-butyl-4-[N’,N’-bis(2`,4`-dichlorobenzoyl)ethylamino]-1,8-naphthalimide was determined. The π-π stacking interactions and hydrogen bonds between the two molecular core planes (naphthalimide ring) and the van der Waals forces between the flexible n-butyl groups resulted in a 3D long-chain structure. The UV-vis and fluorescence properties of the title compounds were investigated. The results indicated that the monosubstituted 1,8-naphthalimide derivatives bearing an electron-donating group on the benzene ring or a structure with a larger conjugative effect exhibited enhanced fluorescence properties.