ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2010005
Subject: Keywords: portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF); heavy metals; lead (Pb); zinc (Zn); copper (Cu); topsoil; sustainable urban drainage systems; SuDS; LID; BMPs; WSUD; GI; SCMs
Online: 30 January 2020 (00:00:00 CET)
Sustainable urban drainage systems (SuDS) such as swales are designed to collect, store and infiltrate a large amount of surface runoff water during heavy rainfall. Stormwater is known to transport pollutants, such as particle-bound heavy metals, which are known to often accumulate in the topsoil. In this study, a portable XRF instrument is used to provide in situ spatial characterization of soil pollutants. The method uses portable XRF measurements of heavy metals along profiles with set intervals (1 meter) to cover the swale with cross-sections, across the inlet, the deepest point and the outlet. Soil samples are collected, and the In-Situ measurements are verified by the results from laboratory analyses. Stormwater is here shown to be the transporting media for the pollutants, so it is of importance to investigate areas most prone to flooding and infiltration. This quick scan method is time and cost-efficient, easy to execute and the results are comparable to any known (inter)national threshold criteria for polluted soils. The results are of great importance for all stakeholders in cities that are involved in climate adaptation and implementing green infrastructure in urban areas. However, too little is still known about the long-term functioning of the soil-based SuDS facilities.
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: refractory materials; alkali activation; particle size; self-foaming; SEM; EDXS; XRF; XRD; compressive strength
Online: 16 April 2020 (05:12:22 CEST)
Influence of particle size on the mechanical strength of alkali activated material from waste refractory monolithic was investigated in this study. Precursor was chemically and mineralogically analysed, separated on 4 fractions and alkali activated with Na-water glass. Alkali activated materials were thoroughly investigated under SEM and XRD to evaluate the not predicted differences in mechanical strength. Time dependence of curing temperature on mechanical strength was investigated in the sample prepared from a fraction that caused the highest compressive strength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0244.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: XRF; X-ray fluorescence; thickness determination; thin film; simulation; XMI-MSIM; electrodeposition; Monte Carlo; galvanic industry; electroplating
Online: 24 January 2019 (08:09:27 CET)
X-ray fluorescence is largely employed in the measurement of the thickness of coatings. Despite of its diffusion, the task is not straightforward because of the complex physics involved that results in high dependence on matrix effects. Thickness quantification is in practice accomplished using the Fundamental Parameters approach, adjusted with empirical measurements of standards with known composition and thickness. This approach has two major drawbacks: i) there are no standards for any possible coating and coating architecture and ii) even relying on standards, the quantification of unknown samples requires the precise knowledge of the matrix nature (e.g., in case of multilayer coatings the thickness and the composition of each underlayer). In this work, we describe a semiquantitative approach to coatings thickness measurement based on the construction of calibration curves through simulated XRF spectra built with Monte Carlo simulations. Simulations have been performed with the freeware software XMI-MSIM. We have assessed the accuracy of the methods by comparing the results with those obtained by i) XRF thickness determination with standards and ii) FIB-SEM cross-sectioning. Then we evaluated which parameters are critical in this kind of indirect thickness measurements.
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: 15th-century illuminated manuscripts; smalt; bismuth ink; non-invasive analyses; Raman spectroscopy; XRF mapping; UV-vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy
Online: 12 June 2019 (12:03:01 CEST)
This paper discusses a cross-disciplinary, international collaboration aimed at researching a series of 15th century choir books at the abbey of San Giorgio Maggiore on the homonymous island in Venice. Produced for the abbey itself, the books have never left the island during their 500-years history, thereby allowing a unique opportunity to analyse historic artefacts, which have undergone little modification over time. Prompted by ongoing cataloguing work on the manuscripts, a week-long analytical campaign using a combination of non-invasive analytical methods used in portable configuration allowed the comprehensive characterisation of ten volumes. The manuscripts’ palette and painting techniques were analysed using near-infrared imaging, reflectance spectroscopy in the UV-vis-NIR range, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence mapping and digital microscopy. The paper will discuss the challenges linked to the fragility and the large dimensions of the volumes as well as the most interesting results of the investigation. These include the detection of unusual painting materials such as bismuth ink, as well as the discovery of a less homogeneous palette than originally expected, which prompted a partial revision of the attribution of the decoration in one of the volumes to a single artist.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0098.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: atmospheric aerosol; municipal and traffic emissions; natural sources; enrichment factor; coal and gasoline combustion; 24-h concentrations; diurnal variability; PX-375; XRF analysis
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:17:30 CEST)
The paper presents data from a monthly campaign for the elemental composition of PM10 in a specific receptor Kotórz Mały (Opole Voivodeship) located in the vicinity of a moderately inhabited rural area, measured in one-hour samples with the use of the PX-375 analyzer by the Horiba company. The hourly variability of SO2, NO, NO2, CO, O3 concentrations as well as the variability of meteorological parameters were also determined. On average, during the entire measurement period, the elements related to PM10 can be arranged in the following order: As<V<Ni<Pb<Cr<Mn<Cu<Ti<Zn<K<Fe<Ca<Al<Si<S. Trace elements, including toxic elements, such as As, V, Ni, Pb, Cr, Mn, were present in low concentrations, not exceeding 10 ng/m3 (average daily value). These elements had fairly even concentrations, daily and hourly. The concentrations of the main elements in the PM10 in the receptor are subject to strong hourly changes related not only to changes in the structure of the sources identified in the statistical analysis but mainly to wind speed and direction changes (soil and sand particles pick-up and inflow of pollutants from coal combustion). It has been shown that the transport emission in the receptor can have an intense effect on PM10 in the afternoon.