COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0159.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: uncoated silicon nanoparticles; aggregation; in vivo toxicity; LC50 for Danio rerio larvae
Online: 12 May 2022 (07:39:46 CEST)
Silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) are highly promising for biological and biomedical applications, including bioimaging, due to their unique opltical properties (i.e. strong fluorescence and very high photostability). Their low or negligible in vitro toxicity has been reported, but in vivo toxicity and biological effects of SiNPs are still uncertain. Uncoated SiNPs were dispersed in distilled water via sonication, and their rapid aggregation was observed (319.0 ± 2.4 nm particle size). In vivo toxicity was studied using Danio rerio embryos and larvae. Rapid aggregation in their incubation medium was observed; besides that, SiNPs at 25 mg/L or higher concentration induced swim bladder malformation and/or death of the fish. The estimated LC50 value for 7-day larvae was 180 mg/L. This is the first in vivo toxicity study of uncoated and unfunctionalized SiNPs. To achieve better stability in biological media and lower toxicity, SiNPs should be covered with hydrophilic layers, but their absorption by cellular membranes may be weaker in this case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0643.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: processing waste; Atlantic cod; collagen; red king crab; enzyme preparation; collagen hydrolysate; culture medium
Online: 29 July 2021 (10:25:50 CEST)
The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) processing wastes are massive and unutilized in the Murmansk region of Russia. The samples of skin-containing waste of Atlantic cod fillets production were hydrolyzed using enzyme preparations derived from red king crab hepatopancreases, porcine pancreases and Bacillus subtilis bacteria. The activity of enzymes from crab hepatopancreases was significantly higher than the activity of enzymes derived from other sources. The optimal conditions of the hydrolysis process have been figured out. The samples of cod processing waste hydrolysate were analyzed for amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution. The samples of hydrolysate were used as core components for bacterial culture medium samples. The efficiency of the medium samples was tested for Escherichia coli growth rate; the most efficient sample had efficiency 95.3% of that of a commercially available medium based on fish meal. Substitution of medium components with those derived from industrial by-products is one of the ways to decrease a cost of a culture medium in biopharmaceutical drug production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0412.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: fish processing waste; Alaska pollock; Pacific cod; fish gelatin; gelling component.
Online: 19 July 2021 (13:14:52 CEST)
Waste from fish cutting (heads, swim bladders, fins, skin, bones) is a high-value technological raw material for obtaining substances and products based on them with a wide range of properties. The possibility of using waste from cutting fish of the Gadidae family: the Alaska pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and the Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), processed in the coastal zone, is scientifically substantiated. In this work, a technology has been developed for processing accumulated waste from fish cutting in order to obtain fish gelatin, which is characterized by high protein content (more than 80.0%) and a full set of essential and nonessential amino acids. We studied the quality of fish gelatin obtained from wastes from cutting the fish of the Gadidae family. The possibility of using fish gelatin as a component of fish products is shown; the dose of its introduction into the fish products is substantiated. The data obtained made it possible to recommend the use of fish processing waste products as a gelling component and a source of amino acids in multicomponent food systems.