COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0257.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: TRF analysis; ITS; Physcomitrium; Ceratodon; Marchantia; Sphagnum; dioecious
Online: 5 December 2023 (15:01:12 CET)
The ends of linear chromosomes of most eukaryotes consist of protein-bound DNA arrays called telomeres, which play essential roles in protecting genome integrity. Despite general evolutionary conservation in function, telomeric DNA is known to drastically vary in length and sequence between different eukaryotic lineages. Bryophytes are a group of early diverging land plants that include mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. This group of ancient land plants recently emerged as a new model for important discoveries in genomics and evolutionary biology, as well as for understanding plant adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle. We measured telomere length in different ecotypes of model Bryophyte species, including Physcomitrium patens, Marchantia polymorpha, Ceratodon purpureus, and in Sphagnum isolates. Our data indicate that all analyzed moss and liverwort genotypes have relatively short telomeres. Furthermore, all analyzed ecotypes and isolates of model mosses and liverworts display evidence of substantial natural variation in telomere length. Interestingly, telomere length also differs between male and female strains of the dioecious liverwort M. polymorpha and dioecious moss C. purpureus. Given that Bryophytes are extraordinarily well-adapted to different ecological niches from polar to tropical environments, our data will contribute to understanding the impact of natural telomere length variation on evolutionary adaptations in this ancient land plant lineage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0684.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Paracentrotus lividus; Transformers; Trf; 185/333; invertebrate immunity; phagocytosis; model organism
Online: 27 May 2021 (15:09:05 CEST)
Sea urchins are long-living invertebrates with a complex immune system which includes extended families of immune receptors. A central immune gene family in the sea urchins encodes for the Transformer (Trf) proteins. The Trf family was so far studied mainly in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. In this study, we explored this protein family in the Mediterranean Sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The PlTrf genes and predicted proteins were found to be highly diverse and showed a typical Trf size range and structure. We found that P. lividus coelomocytes and hemolymph contain different PlTrf protein repertoires with a shared subset which specifically bind E. coli bacteria. Using FACS, we identified five different P. lividus coelomocyte sub-populations with cell surface Trf protein expression. The relative abundance of the Trf-positive cells sharply increased following immune challenge with E. coli bacteria, but not following challenge with LPS or sea urchin pathogen V. penaeicida. Finally, we demonstrated that the phagocytosis of E. coli bacteria by P. lividus phagocytes is mediated through the hemolymph and is inhibited by blocking Trf activity with anti-Trf antibodies. Together, our results suggest collaboration between cellular and humoral Trf-mediated effector arms in the P. lividus specific immune response to pathogens.