BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0489.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: overweight; obesity; health behaviour; health status; adulthood
Online: 18 November 2020 (23:35:44 CET)
The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among adults in Iraq. Data from a 2015 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 3,916 persons 18 years and older were analysed that responded to a questionnaire, physical and biochemical measures. Multinomial logistic regression was utilized to predict determinants of overweight and obesity relative to under or normal weight. Results indicate that 3.6% of the participants were underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m²), 30.8% had normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m²), 31.8% were overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m²), and 33.9% had obesity (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m²). In adjusted multinomial logistic regression, aged 40-49 years (Adjusted Relative Risk Ratio-ARRR: 4.47, Confidence Interval-CI: 3.39-5.91), urban residence (ARRR: 1.28, CI: 1.14-2.18), hypertension (ARRR: 3.13, CI: 2.36-4.17) were positively, and male sex (ARRR: 0.47, CI: 0.33-0.68), having more than primary education (ARRR: 0.69, CI: 0.50-0.94), and larger household size (≥5 members) (ARRR: 0.45, CI: 0.33-0.60) were negativey associated with obesity. About two in three adult participants were overweight/obese, and sociodemographic and health risk factors were found that can be utilized in targeting interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0449.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Suicidal ideation; suicide plans; suicide attempts; middle school students; Sierra Leone
Online: 17 November 2020 (12:25:51 CET)
Background: The study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle school students in Sierra Leone. Method: Data from 2,798 adolescents (15 years of median age) that responded to the cross-sectional “2017 Sierra Leone Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS)” were analysed. Results: The prevalence of past 12-month suicidal ideation was 14.2%, suicide plans 16.0%, and suicide attempts 19.1%. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, worry-induced sleep disturbance (Adjusted Odds Ratio-AOR: 1.84, 95% Confidence Interval-CI: 1.32-2.57), bullied (AOR: 2.90, 95% CI: 1.77-4.74), trouble from alcohol use (AOR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.03-3.50), and leisure-time sedentary behaviour (AOR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.18-4.98) were associated with suicidal ideation. Bullied (AOR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.46-3.95) and current cannabis use (AOR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.51-4.09) were associated with suicide plans in the past 12 months. No close friends (AOR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.46-4.72) loneliness (AOR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.08-2.66), bullied (AOR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.66-3.28), trouble from alcohol use (AOR: 4.01, 95% CI: 2.25-7.13) and current cannabis use (AOR: 2.93, 95% CI: 1.37-6.25) were positively and school attendance (AOR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.42-0.92) negatively associated with suicide attempts in the past 12 months. Conclusion: Almost one in five students had made suicide attempts in the past 12 months and several associated variables were discovered that can assist in designing interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0407.v1
Online: 16 November 2020 (09:17:22 CET)
Background: Monk healers provide an accessible and popular service in Southeast Asia, but little is known on the substance use status of their clients. This investigation intended to assess and compare the rate and correlates of substance use disorders in two different treatment settings (monk healers=MH and primary health care=PHC) in Thailand. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 1024 patients (591 of MH and 613 of PHC) responded to screening measures of the “World Health Organization Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test Lite”, and two common mental disorders (major depression and generalized anxiety disorder) from November 2018 to February 2019. Logistic regression was used to estimate the determinants of any substance use disorder in the MH and PHC setting. Results: The prevalence of substance use disorder was higher in MH clients than PHC patients: any substance use disorder 11.7% (95% Confidence Interval-CI: 9.3%-14.5%) vs 5.4% (95% CI: 3.9%-7.5%), tobacco use disorder 7.6% (95% CI: 5.7%-9.9%) vs 2.5% (95% CI: 1.5%-4.0%), alcohol use disorder 10.0% (95% CI: 8.4%-13.6%) vs 4.3% (95% CI: 3.0%-6.3%), any drug use disorder 4.2% (95% CI: 2.8%-6.1%) vs 0.3% (95% CI: 0.08%-1.3%), and any past three months drug use 8.2% (95% CI: 6.2%-10.7%) vs 1.5%, 95% CI: 0.8%-2.8%). In adjusted logistic regression analysis, among MH clients, male sex (Adjusted Odds Ratio-AOR: 9.52, 95% Confidence Interval-CI: 5.06-17.92) was positively, and were married (AOR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.16-0.61) and high social support (AOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.16-0.99) were negatively associated with any substance use disorder. Among PHC patients, male sex (AOR: 7.05, 95% CI: 2.99-16.63) was positively and age (AOR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92-0.98) was negatively associated with any substance use disorder. Conclusion: The proportion of substance use disorders among MH attendees was more than twice that of PHC attenders in Thailand, calling for collaboration in controlling substance use disorders between the two treatment systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0337.v1
Online: 12 November 2020 (09:49:51 CET)
The study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of heavy episodic drinking (HED) among adults in Ecuador. In the national cross-sectional 2018 Ecuador STEPS survey, 4,638 persons (median age=39 years, range 18-69 years) responded to a questionnaire, physical measures, and biomedical tests. Results indicate that 24.1% had past month HED, 36.7% among men, and 12.0% of women; 40.6% past month HED among past 12-month drinkers. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, male sex (Adjusted Odds Ratio=AOR: 3.12, 95% Confidence Interval=CI: 2.50-3.89), past smoking (AOR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.09-1.76), and current smoking (AOR: 2.83, 95% CI: 2.15-3.83) were positively and persons aged 50-69 years (AOR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.38-0.66) and having underweight (AOR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.09-0.89) were negatively associated with HED. In addition, in sex-stratified analyses, among men, being African Ecuadorean or Mulato (AOR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.10-2.91), and high physical activity (AOR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.01-1.99) were positively associated with HED, and among women, being Montubia (AOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.17-0.93) was negatively and obesity (AOR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.44) was positively associated with HED. Almost one in four participants engaged in HED, and several sociodemographic and health indicators were identified that may facilitate public health interventions for reducing HED.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0273.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychological distress; household survey; adolescents; South Africa
Online: 9 November 2020 (10:19:43 CET)
Psychological distress (PD) may be common among adolescents. The study aimed to estimate population-based rates of PD among adolescents in South Africa. National cross-sectional data were analysed from 2,240 adolescents (17 years median age) that participated in a community-based population survey, the “2012 South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1).” Results indicated that 16.0% of the adolescents had PD, 13.1% among boys and 18.5% among girls. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, increasing age, girls, belonging to the Black African population group, having experienced two or more traumatic life events, poor self-rated health status, having activity limitations, perceived body overweight, fast food and snack consumption were associated with PD. Almost one in six adolescents in South Africa reported PD and several associated factors were identified.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0711.v1
Online: 29 September 2020 (12:49:06 CEST)
The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of oral hygiene (OH) and hand hygiene (HH) behaviour among school adolescents in three Caribbean countries. In all, 7,476 school adolescents (median age 14 years), from Dominican Republic, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago responded the cross-sectional “Global School-based Student Health Survey” (GSHS) in 2016-2017. The prevalence poor OH (tooth brushing <2 times/day) was 16.9%, poor HH (not always before meals) was 68.2%, poor HH (not always after toilet) was 28.4% and poor HH (not always with soap) was 52.7%. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, current cannabis use, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, poor mental health and low parental support increased the odds for poor OH. Rarely or sometimes experiencing hunger, trouble from alcohol use, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, poor mental health, and low parental support were associated with poor HH (before meals, and/or after toilet, and/or with soap). The survey showed poor OH and HH behaviour practices. Several sociodemographic factors, health risk behaviours, poor mental health and low parental support were found associated with poor OH and/or HH behaviour that can assist with tailoring OH and HH health promotion.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0710.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychological distress; determinants; adolescents; Bhutan
Online: 29 September 2020 (12:47:53 CEST)
The goal of the study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress (=PD) among adolescent school children in Bhutan. Nationally representative cross-sectional data were analysed from 7,576 adolescents (16 years median age) that took part in the “2016 Bhutan Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS).” PD was assessed with a 2-item screening measure (BMC Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1186/s12888-020-02888-3). Results indicate that the prevalence of PD was 15.8%, 12.8% among males and 18.4% among females. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, female sex, having no close friends, older age, bullying victimization, infrequently physically attacked, parental emotional neglect, parents never check home work, passive smoking trouble from alcohol use, ever had sex, high sedentary behaviour and having sustained a single or multiple serious injuries (past year) were associated with PD. In addition, adequate fruit and vegetable consumptions was protective against PD. Almost one in six students reported PD and several associated factors were identified which can aid prevention and control strategies.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0700.v1
Online: 29 September 2020 (09:11:09 CEST)
The study aimed to assess the prevalence and its correlates of infrequent and frequent bullying victimization (=BV) among school-going adolescents in five “Association of Southeast Asian Nations” (ASEAN) member states. The cross-sectional sample comprised 33,184 school adolescents (14.6 years mean age) from five ASEAN countries of the “Global School-based Student Health Survey” (GSHS) in 2015. Results indicate that 30.6% of participants reported any past-month BV, 33.9% in boys and 27.5 in girls, ranging from 11.8% in Laos to 48.7% in the Philippines. In the adjusted multinomial logistic regression analysis, students from the Philippines and Thailand, experience of hunger, sedentary behaviour, attending physical education classes, being underweight, being overweight or obese, ever amphetamine use, physically assaulted, school truancy, participation in a physical fight, injury, low peer support and psychological distress were associated with BV. Almost one in three adolescents were bullied and several associated variables were identified which can assist in targeting the strategies of intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0346.v1
Online: 14 December 2020 (14:47:20 CET)
The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of cervical and breast cancer screening among women in the general population in Jordan. Nationally representative cross-sectional data were analysed from 14,689 women (34 years median age, range 15-49) that took part in the “2017-18 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey”. Information about cancer screening uptake included Pap smear, clinical breast examination, and mammography. Results indicate that the prevalence of ever Pap smear cancer screening was 15.3%, clinical breast examination in the past 12 months 13.9% and ever mammography 8.7%. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, older age, higher wealth, greater media exposure and tobacco use were positively and being Syrian, and living in the southern region were negatively associated with ever Pap smear, clinical breast examination in the past 12 months, and ever mammography. In addition, high decision-making power was associated with the uptake of Pap smear and higher education was associated with ever mammography. The study showed a low cancer screening uptake, and several factors were identified that can assist in promoting cancer screening in Jordan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0431.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: alcohol use; drug use; adolescents; adults; health variables; South Africa
Online: 16 November 2020 (15:36:53 CET)
The study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol use (HHDA) and drug use among persons 15 years and older in South Africa. In a national cross-sectional 2017 survey, 39,210 persons 15 years and older (Median=34 years) responded to a questionnaire on substance and health variables. Logistic regression was used to assess the determinants of HHDA and any drug use. Results indicate that (10.3%) engaged HHDA, 16.5% among males and 4.6% among females, and past 3-month drug use was 8.6%, 13.3% among males and 4.1% among females. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, among men, middle age (25-34 year olds), higher education, urban residence, drug use, and psychological distress were positively and Indian or Asian and White population groups were negatively associated with HHDA. Among women, middle age (25-34 year olds), Coloureds, residing on rural farms and urban areas, drug use and psychological distress were positively and older age (55 years and older), and Indians or Asians were negatively associated with HHDA. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, among men, having Grade 8-11 education, Coloureds, being unemployed, and HHDA were positively and middle and older age (25 years and older) and being a student or learner were negatively associated with past 3-month any drug use. Among women, Coloureds, Indians or Asians, and HHDA were positively and older age (45 years and older) was negatively associated with past 3-month and drug use. About one in ten participants engaged HHDA and any drug use, and several sociodemographic and health indicators were identified associated with HHDA and any drug use.