ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: aptamer: acoustophoresis; microfluidics; gram-negative bacteria
Online: 18 October 2019 (11:41:41 CEST)
Here, we report a simple and effective method for separation of gram-negative bacteria using aptamer-modified microbeads and acoustophoresis. As acoustophoresis allows for simultaneous washing and size-dependent separation in continuous flow mode, we efficiently obtained gram-negative bacteria that showed high affinity without any additional washing steps. The proposed device has a simple and efficient channel design, utilizing a long, square-shaped microchannel that shows excellent separation performance in terms of the purity, recovery, and concentration factor. Microbeads (10 µm) coated with the GN6 aptamer can specifically bind gram-negative bacteria. Using acoustophoresis, gram-negative bacteria-bound microbeads and other unbound/contaminants can be separated by size with high purity and recovery. The device demonstrated excellent separation performance, with high recovery (up to 98%), high purity (up to 99%), and a high volume rate (500 µL/min), and a concentration factor of up to 20×. The acoustophoresis microfluidic device also showed binding affinity to multiple strains of gram-negative bacteria, but not to gram-positive bacteria. This study presents a new paradigm for early diagnosis of bacterial infectious diseases. In addition to detecting living bacteria or bacteria-derived biomarkers, this protocol can be extended to monitoring the contamination of water resources, and may aid quick responses to bioterrorism and pathogenic bacterial infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0196.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: osteoporosis; herbal medicine; Kukoamine B; osteoblast; osteoclast; bone mineral density; ovariectomized mice
Online: 31 October 2017 (15:35:04 CET)
Osteoporosis is an abnormal bone remodeling condition characterized by decreased bone density, which leads to high risks of broken bones. Previous studies have demonstrated that Lycii Radicis Cortex (LRC) extract inhibits bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) mice by enhancing the osteoblast differentiation. A bioactive compound, Kukoamine B (KB), was identified from a fractionation of LRC extract as a candidate component responsible for an anti-osteoporotic effect. This study investigated the anti-osteoporotic effects of KB using in vitro and in vivo osteoporosis models. KB treatment significantly increased the osteoblastic differentiation and mineralized nodule formation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, while it significantly decreased the osteoclast differentiation of primary-cultured monocytes derived from mouse bone marrow. The effects of KB on osteoblastic and osteoclastic differentiations under more physiological conditions were also examined. In the co-culture of MC3T3-E1 cells and monocytes, KB promoted osteoblast differentiation but did not affect osteoclast differentiation. For the in vivo experiments, KB significantly inhibited OVX-induced bone mineral density loss and restored the impaired bone structural properties in osteoporosis model mice. These results suggest that KB may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of osteoporosis.