REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0024.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Slope based SCS Curve Number; Antecedent Moisture Condition; Land Use; Runoff potential; Urban watersheds
Online: 15 October 2020 (15:14:05 CEST)
The Soil Conservation Service - Curve Number (SCS-CN) method is extensively used to calculate the runoff from rainfall over a large catchment over the world. Slope is an important criterion for runoff but a very few attempts have been made to evaluate the effect of slope on the CN with runoff potential. The objective of this paper is to summarise the historical review on the effects of slope on CN and runoff potential in various regions by the hydrologists. This paper also depicts that how the various researchers proved the importance of consideration of slope for CN and runoff estimation. In addition, paper highlights the key features of research in future like to classify the watersheds on slope based CN, accurate Antecedent Moisture Condition (AMC) and proper initial abstraction in the various regions etc. Considering these parameters an accurate runoff estimation can be predicted and managed properly in the urban watersheds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: PSPS; FBSS; SCS; surgical lead; SCS implantation; MAST (for Minimal Access Spine Technologies); TCIVA (for Target Controlled Intra-Veinous Anesthesia); composite score; pain mapping; neuropathic pain; chronic pain; quality of life; anesthesia; hypnosis
Online: 25 July 2022 (08:34:26 CEST)
Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) is an effective and validated treatment to address chronic refractory neuropathic pain in Persistent Spinal Pain Syndrome-Type 2 (PSPS-T2) patients. Surgical SCS lead placement is traditionally performed under general anesthesia due to its invasiveness. In parallel, recent works have suggested that Awake Anesthesia (AA), consisting in Target Controlled Intra-Veinous Anesthesia (TCIVA), could be an interesting tool to optimize lead anatomical placement using patient intra-operative feedback. We hypothesized that combining AA with Minimal Invasive Surgery (MIS) could improve SCS outcomes. The goal of this study was to evaluate SCS lead performance (defined by the area of pain adequately covered by paraesthesia generated via SCS), using an intraoperative objective quantitative mapping tool, and secondarily to assess pain relief, functional improvement and change in quality of life with a composite score. We analyzed data from a prospective multicenter study (ESTIMET) to compare the outcomes of 115 patients implanted with MIS under AA (MISAA group) or General Anesthesia (MISGA group), or by Laminectomy under General Anesthesia (LGA group). All in all, MISAA appears to show significantly better performance in terms of patient pain coverage, as well as improved secondary outcomes. One step further, our results suggest that MISAA combined with intra-operative hypnosis could potentialize patient intraoperative cooperation and could be proposed as a personalized package offered to PSPS-T2 patients eligible for SCS implantation in highly dedicated neuromodulation centers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0250.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: anatomy; neuroanatomy; conus medullaris; Multicolumn Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS); soma-totopy; dorsal columns; Computerized Electrical Modeling; Neuro-Fiber-Mapping; super-selective spinal cord stimulation
Online: 18 October 2022 (05:29:38 CEST)
Spinal Cord (SC) Anatomy is often assimilated to a morphologically encapsulated neural entity, but its functional anatomy remains only partially understood. We hypothesized that it could be possible to reexplore SC neural networks by performing live electrostimulation mapping, based on “super-selective” Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS), originally designed as a therapeutical tool to address chronic refractory pain. As a starting point, we initiated a systematic SCS lead programming approach using live electrostimulation mapping on a chronic refractory perineal pain patient, previously implanted with multicolumn SCS at the level of the conus medullaris (T12-L1). It appeared possible to (re)explore the classical anatomy of the conus medullaris using statistical correlations of paresthesia coverage mappings, resulting from 165 different electrical configurations tested. We highlighted that sacral dermatomes were not only located more medially but also deeper than lumbar dermatomes at the level of the conus medullaris, in contrast with classical anatomical descriptions of SC somatotopical organization. As we were finally able to find a morpho-functional description of ‘Philippe-Gombault’s triangle’, in 19th century historical textbooks of neuroanatomy, matching remarkably with these conclusions, the concept of “Neuro-Fiber-Mapping” was introduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0235.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Spinal Cord Stimulation; rescue therapy; salvage therapy; new waveforms; paresthesia-free waveforms; High-Frequency stimulation; Burst stimulation; spatial neural targeting; temporal neural targeting; SCS programming; adapter; mapping software; paresthesia coverage; patient outcome; salvage algorithm
Online: 18 October 2021 (10:04:52 CEST)
While paresthesia-based spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been proven effective to treat chronic neuropathic pain, initial benefits may lead to the development of “Failed SCS Syndrome’ (FSCSS) defined as decrease over time related to Loss of Efficacy (LoE) with or without Loss of Coverage (LoC). Development of technologies associating new paresthesia-free stimulation waveforms and implanted pulse generator adapters provide opportunities to manage patients with LoE. The main goal of our study was to investigate salvage procedures, through neu-rostimulation adapters, in patients already implanted with SCS and experienced LoE. We retro-spectively analyzed a cohort of patients who were offered new SCS programs/waveforms through an implanted adapter between 2018 and 2021. Patients were evaluated before, and at 1, 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up. Outcomes included pain intensity rating with Visual Analog Scale (VAS), pain/coverage mappings and stimulation preferences. Last follow-up evaluations (N=27) showed significant improvement in VAS (p = 0.0001), ODI (p = 0.021) and Quality of Life (p=0.023). In the 11/27 patients with LoC, SCS efficacy on pain intensity (36.89%) was accompa-nied by paresthesia coverage recovery (55.57%) and pain surface decrease (47.01%). At 12-month follow-up, 81.3% preferred to keep tonic stimulation in their waveform portfolio. SCS conver-sion using adapters appears promising as a salvage solution, with an emphasis on paresthesia recapturing enabled by spatial retargeting. In light of these results, adapters could be integrated to SCS rescue algorithms or should be considered in SCS rescue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0031.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: spinal cord stimulation (SCS); peripheral nerve field stimulation (PNfS); SubQ-stimulation; hybrid stimulation; multidimensional pain assessment; pain mapping; pain software; persistent spinal pain syndrome - T2 (PSPS-T2); failed back surgery syndrome; failed spinal cord stimulation syndrome (FSCSS); salvage therapy; salvage algorithm
Online: 1 September 2021 (18:16:10 CEST)
While Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) provides satisfaction to almost 2/3 of Persistent Spinal Pain Syndrome-Type 2 (PSPS-T2) patients implanted for refractory chronic back and/or leg pain when not adequately addressed the back pain component, leaves patients in a therapeutic cul-de-sac. Peripheral Nerve field Stimulation (PNfS) has shown interesting results addressing back pain in the same population. Far from placing these two techniques in opposition, we suggest that these approaches could be combined to better treat PSPS-T2 patients. We designed a RCT (CUMPNS), with a 12-month follow-up, to assess the potential added value of PNfS, as a salvage therapy, in PSPS-T2 patients experiencing a “Failed SCS Syndrome” in the back pain component. Fourteen patients were included in this study and randomized into 2 groups (“SCS + PNfS” group/n=6 vs “SCS only” group/n=8). The primary objective of the study was to compare the percentage of back pain surface decrease after 3 months, using a computerized interface to obtain quantitative pain mappings, combined with multi-dimensional SCS outcomes. Back pain surface decreased significantly greater for the ”SCS+PNfS” group (80.2% ± 21.3%) compared to the “SCS only” group (13.2% ± 94.8%) (p=0.012), highlighting the clinical interest of SCS+PNfS, in cases where SCS fails to address back pain.