ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0111.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Soil bulk density; Water consumption; Rotary tillage; Photosynthetic rate; Field capacity
Online: 12 April 2022 (10:41:57 CEST)
Rotary tillage is a main management tillage practices and widely applied in the North China Plain. However, the long term rotary tillage (depth of 20 cm) results in soil compaction and plow pan formation, which reduces water use efficiency and nutrient uptake, and then impedes the yield increase. In this study, a 3-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of different depths of tillage on soil bulk density, field capacity, water use, photosynthetic rate, nutrients and maize yields in the North China Plain. Three depths of tillage (D20, depth of 20 cm; D25, depth of 25 cm; D30, depth of 30 cm) were assessed. D25 and D30 significantly reduced soil bulk density and improved field capacity in 10-20 and 20-30 cm soil layer, compared to D20. Soil water consumption for D25 was significantly higher 10.12% and 6.61% than that for D20 and D30, respectively. Photosynthetic rate for D25 significantly improved than that for D20 and D30. Total nitrogen in 0-20cm soil layer decreased with the depths of tillage. The maize yields for D25 significantly increased by 20.92% and 21.56% compared to that for D20 and D30, respectively. Structural equation models showed that the total effects of tillage, total nitrogen, photosynthesis and soil water consumption on yields were 0.019, -0.628, 0.121, and 0.895 (path coefficients λ), respectively. The results demonstrated that D25 could improve maize yields, water use efficiency, photosynthetic rate by improving soil water consumption. Depth of 25 cm is optimal tillage practice for the maize production in the North China Plain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0043.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: rotary machinery; adaptive order tracking; online real-time monitoring.
Online: 3 September 2018 (15:02:45 CEST)
When a rotary machine is running, from which the acquired vibro-acoustic signals enable to reveal its operation status and health condition. The study proposed a DSP-based adaptive angular-velocity Vold-Kalman filtering order tracking (AV2KF_OT) algorithm with an online real-time nature for signal interpretation and machine condition monitoring. Theoretical derivation and numerical implementation of computation schemes are briefly introduced. An online real-time monitoring system based on the AV2KF_OT algorithm, which was implemented through both a digital signal processor and a user interface coded by using LabVIEW, was developed. Two experimental tasks were applied to justify the proposed technique, including (i) the detection of startup on the fluid-induced whirl performed through a journal-bearing rotor rig, and (ii) the separation of close orders from the measured signals of a multifunction transmission-element ball-bearing bench.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0582.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: structural analysis; structural design; rotary piercing; seamless pipes; bulk metal forming; FSI
Online: 24 September 2020 (11:43:12 CEST)
The development of numerical simulations is potentially useful in predicting the most suitable manufacturing process and ultimately improving product quality. Seamless pipes are manufactured by rotary piercing process in which round bars are fed between two rolls and pierced by a stationary plug. During this process, the material undergoes severe deformation which renders it impractical to be modelled and analysed with conventional finite element methods. In this paper, three dimensional numerical simulations of the piercing process are performed with Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation in LS DYNA software. Details about the material model as well as the elements formulations are elaborated here and mesh sensitivity analysis was performed. The results of the numerical simulations are in good agreement with experimental data found in the literature and the validity of the analysis method is confirmed. The effects of varying workpiece velocity, process temperature, and wall thickness on the maximum stress levels of the product material/pipes are investigated by performing simulations of sixty scenarios. Three dimensional surface plots are generated which can be utilized to predict the maximum stress value at any given combination of the three parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0353.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: agroindustrial waste; alperujo and orujo; rotary dryer emissions; volatile organic compounds; biomass drying
Online: 29 December 2018 (02:39:58 CET)
In the industrial production of olive oil, both solid wastes and those produced from their incineration are a serious environmental problem since only 20% w/w of the fruit becomes oil and the rest is waste, mainly orujo and alperujo. A key aspect to transform these wastes into an important source of energy such as pellets is to recognize the most appropriate time of the year for waste drying, with the objective of minimizing the environmental impact of the volatile compounds contained in the waste. In this work, the emissions produced during thermal-mechanical drying were studied along a period of six months of waste storage in which alperujo and orujo were stored in open containers under uncontrolled environmental conditions. The studied emissions were produced when both wastes were dried in a pilot rotary drying trommel at 450ºC to reduce their initial humidity of around 70-80% w/w to 10-15% w/w. Results indicated that when the storage time of the wastes in uncontrolled environments increases, the emission of odorant compounds during drying also increases as a consequence of the biological and chemical processes occurring in the containers during waste storage. The main odorant VOCs were quantified monthly for six months at the outlet of the drying trommel. It was determined that the drying of this type of waste can be carried out properly until the third month of storage. Afterwards, the concentration of most VOCs produced widely exceeded the odor thresholds of selected compounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0184.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: pintle type rotary spool valve; flow distributor valve; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); orbit motor
Online: 11 September 2018 (05:34:52 CEST)
In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the effect of spool port/ groove geometry on the pressure drop and chamber pressures which effect the performance parameters of the flow distributor valve. The work mainly involves formulation of detailed mathematical model of the valve and compare them on the same platform. For mathematical modelling, Matlab has been used. The size of the orifices is considered same throughout the model for better comparison. Initially the construction and functioning of flow distributor valve along with working principles of hydrostatic motor (Rotary Piston) is shown. Next shown the analytical analysis of area change and pressure drops due to different geometry of the spool valve ports. After that the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been shown. A complete mathematical model to describe such flow distributor valve is developed after having a comprehensive knowledge of orifice characteristics, flow interactions based on valve geometry. Equations of flow through different orifices (fixed and variable area) of the valve have been developed based on the relationships obtained earlier.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0214.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: roundabouts; traffic engineering; rotary priority; spatio-temporal technique; synchronization; protocols; intelligent transport systems; connected vehicles; traffic safety
Online: 10 September 2020 (03:31:57 CEST)
Roundabouts need capacity and safety improvements compatible with manual-driven, not only with autonomous vehicles. The signaling and control of roundabouts must evolve and incorporate current technologies. For that, we approach roundabouts as synchronous switches of vehicles. This paper describes Synchronous Roundabouts with Rotating Priorities, a roundabout control system based on vehicle platoons arriving at the roundabout at speed identical to the roundabout and within the time slot assigned to their entry, avoiding conflicts and stops, thus increasing roundabout capacity and safety. Signaling is visual for human drivers and also wireless for connected and autonomous vehicles. We evaluate analytically and with simulations roundabouts of different radius for several values of the average distance between vehicles. Average delays are 28,7 % lower, with negligible dispersion. The capacity improvements depend on design parameters: in our set is moderate for small roundabouts but goes up to 70-100 % for short distances and medium and large roundabouts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0501.v3
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Timoshenko beam; rotary inertia; moment shear force circular frequency curvature relationship; spring mass system; closed-form solutions; first-order dynamic stiffness matrix; second-order vibration analysis
Online: 7 October 2022 (10:34:31 CEST)
This study presents an exact solution to the free vibration analysis of a uniform Timoshenko beam, with a harmonic vibration being assumed. The Timoshenko beam theory covers cases associated with small deflections based on shear deformation and rotary inertia considerations. In this paper, a moment-shear force-circular frequency-curvature relationship was presented. The complete study was based on this relationship and closed-form expressions of efforts and deformations were derived. The free vibration response of single-span systems and spring-mass systems was analyzed; closed-form formulations of matrices expressing the boundary conditions were presented and the natural frequencies were determined by solving the eigenvalue problem. Systems with intermediate mass, spring, or spring-mass system were also analyzed. Furthermore, first-order dynamic stiffness matrices in local coordinates were derived. Finally, a second-order analysis of beams resting on an elastic Winkler foundation was conducted. The results obtained in this paper were in good agreement with those of other studies.