Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Higher-order topological insulators; topological bound states in the continuum; nonlinear optics; SSH lattice
Online: 28 July 2021 (09:35:54 CEST)
Higher-order topological insulators (HOTIs) are recently discovered topological phases, possessing symmetry-protected corner states with fractional charges. An unexpected connection between these states and the seemingly unrelated phenomenon of bound states in the continuum (BICs) was recently unveiled. When nonlinearity is added to a HOTI system, a number of fundamentally important questions arise. For example, how does nonlinearity couple higher-order topological BICs with the rest of the system, including continuum states? In fact, thus far BICs in nonlinear HOTIs have remained unexplored. Here, we unveil the interplay of nonlinearity, higher-order topology, and BICs in a photonic platform. We observe topological corner states which are also BICs in a laser-written second-order topological lattice, and further demonstrate their nonlinear coupling with edge (but not bulk) modes under the proper action of both self-focusing and defocusing nonlinearities. Theoretically, we calculate the eigenvalue spectrum and analog of the Zak phase in the nonlinear regime, illustrating that a topological BIC can be actively tuned by nonlinearity in such an HOTI. Our studies are applicable to other nonlinear HOTI systems, with promising applications in emerging topology-driven devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0507.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: microcombs, data transmission, filters, high bandwidth, optical
Online: 23 February 2021 (09:49:59 CET)
Microcombs provide a potential compact and efficient light source for multi-Terabit-per-second optical superchannels. However, as the bandwidth of these multi-wavelength light sources is increased, this can result in low per-line power. Optical amplifiers can be used to overcome power limitations, but the accompanying spontaneous optical noise can degrade performance in optical systems. To overcome this issue, we propose wideband noise reduction for comb lines using a high-Q microring resonator, whose resonances align with comb lines. When applying the proposed distillation to a superchannel system with 18 Gbaud, 64-QAM sub-channels in a > 10 Tb/s optical superchannel, we find that noise-corrupted comb lines can reduce the optical signal-to-noise ratio required for the comb by ~ 9 dB when used as optical carriers at the transmitter side, and by ~ 12 dB when used as a local oscillator at the receiver side.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0180.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: microwave photonics; RF channelizer; micro-ring resonators; Kerr micro-combs
Online: 4 November 2020 (09:25:43 CET)
We report a 92 channel RF channelizer based on a 48.9 GHz integrated micro-comb that operates via soliton crystals, together with a passive high-Q ring resonator that acts as a periodic filter with an optical 3dB bandwidth of 121.4 MHz. We obtain an instant RF bandwidth of 8.08 GHz and 17.55 GHz achieved through temperature tuning. These results represent a major advance to achieving fully integrated photonic RF spectrum channelizers with reduced low complexity, size, and high performance for digital-compatible signal detection and broadband analog signal processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0618.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: optical data communications; fiber optics; microcombs; ultrahigh bandwidth data transmission
Online: 29 October 2020 (14:34:21 CET)
We report world record high data transmission over standard optical fiber from a single optical source. We achieve a line rate of 44.2 Terabits per second (Tb/s) employing only the C-band at 1550nm, resulting in a spectral efficiency of 10.4 bits/s/Hz. We use a new and powerful class of micro-comb called soliton crystals that exhibit robust operation and stable generation as well as a high intrinsic efficiency that, together with an extremely low spacing of 48.9 GHz enables a very high coherent data modulation format of 64 QAM. We achieve error free transmission across 75 km of standard optical fiber in the lab and over a field trial with a metropolitan optical fiber network. This work demonstrates the ability of optical micro-combs to exceed other approaches in performance for the most demanding practical optical communications applications.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: nonlinear optics; microwave; waveform generator; microcombs
Online: 15 May 2020 (09:57:38 CEST)
We report a photonic-based radio frequency (RF) arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) using a soliton crystal micro-comb source with a free spectral range (FSR) of 48.9 GHz. The comb source provides over 80 wavelengths, or channels, that we use to successfully achieve arbitrary waveform shapes including square waveforms with a tunable duty ratio ranging from 10% to 90%, sawtooth waveforms with a tunable slope ratio of 0.2 to 1, and a symmetric concave quadratic chirp waveform with an instantaneous frequency of sub GHz. We achieve good agreement between theory and experiment, validating the effectiveness of this approach towards realizing high-performance, broad bandwidth, nearly user-defined RF waveform generation.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microwave photonic; signal channelization; integrated optical frequency comb
Online: 26 March 2020 (02:19:45 CET)
We report a broadband radio frequency (RF) channelizer with up to 92 channels using a coherent microcomb source. A soliton crystal microcomb, generated by a 49 GHz micro-ring resonator (MRR), is used as a multi-wavelength source. Due to its ultra-low comb spacing, up to 92 wavelengths are available in the C band, yielding a broad operation bandwidth. Another high-Q MRR is employed as a passive optical periodic filter to slice the RF spectrum with a high resolution of 121.4 MHz. We experimentally achieve an instantaneous RF operation bandwidth of 8.08 GHz and verify RF channelization up to 17.55 GHz via thermal tuning. Our approach is a significant step towards the monolithically integrated photonic RF receivers with reduced complexity, size, and unprecedented performance, which is important for wide RF applications ranging from broadband analog signal processing to digital-compatible signal detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0529.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: radio frequency; microwave; spectrum analyzer; integrated; photonic
Online: 26 January 2021 (09:57:01 CET)
We report an all-optical radio-frequency (RF) spectrum analyzer with a bandwidth greater than 5 terahertz (THz), based on a 50-cm long spiral waveguide in a CMOS-compatible high-index doped silica platform. By carefully mapping out the dispersion profile of the waveguides for different thicknesses, we identify the optimal design to achieve near zero dispersion in the C-band. To demonstrate the capability of the RF spectrum analyzer, we measure the optical output of a femtosecond fiber laser with an ultrafast optical RF spectrum in the terahertz regime.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: optical fibre data; transmission; microcomb
Online: 15 March 2020 (15:20:23 CET)
Micro-combs [1-4] - optical frequency combs generated by integrated micro-cavity resonators – offer the full potential of their bulk counterparts [5,6], but in an integrated footprint. The discovery of temporal soliton states (DKS – dissipative Kerr solitons) [4,7-11] as a means of mode-locking micro-combs has enabled breakthroughs in many fields including spectroscopy [12,13], microwave photonics , frequency synthesis , optical ranging [16,17], quantum sources [18,19], metrology [20,21] and more. One of their most promising applications has been optical fibre communications where they have enabled massively parallel ultrahigh capacity multiplexed data transmission [22,23]. Here, by using a new and powerful class of micro-comb called “soliton crystals” , we achieve unprecedented data transmission over standard optical fibre using a single integrated chip source. We demonstrate a line rate of 44.2 Terabits per second (Tb/s) using the telecommunications C-band at 1550nm with a spectral efficiency – a critically important performance metric - of 10.4 bits/s/Hz. Soliton crystals exhibit robust and stable generation and operation as well as a high intrinsic efficiency that, together with a low soliton micro-comb spacing of 48.9 GHz enable the use of a very high coherent data modulation format of 64 QAM (quadrature amplitude modulated). We demonstrate error free transmission over 75 km of standard optical fibre in the laboratory as well as in a field trial over an installed metropolitan optical fibre network. These experiments were greatly aided by the ability of the soliton crystals to operate without stabilization or feedback control. This work demonstrates the capability of optical soliton crystal micro-combs to perform in demanding and practical optical communications networks.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: integrator; Kerr micro-comb; RF signal processing
Online: 12 March 2020 (04:05:22 CET)
We demonstrate a photonic RF integrator based on an integrated soliton crystal micro-comb source. By multicasting and progressively delaying the input RF signal using a transversal structure, the input RF signal is integrated discretely. Up to 81 wavelengths are provided by the microcomb source, which enable a large integration time window of ~6.8 ns, together with a time resolution as fast as ~84 ps. We perform signal integration of a diverse range of input RF signals including Gaussian pulses with varying time widths, dual pulses with varying time intervals and a square waveform. The experimental results show good agreement with theory. These results verify our microcomb-based integrator as a competitive approach for RF signal integration with high performance and potentially lower cost and footprint.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: 2D materials; micro-ring resonator; graphene oxide; Kerr nonlinearity; four-wave mixing; integrated optics
Online: 6 March 2020 (05:33:51 CET)
Layered two-dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO) films are integrated with micro-ring resonators (MRRs) to experimentally demonstrate enhanced nonlinear optics in the form of four-wave mixing (FWM). Both uniformly coated and patterned GO films are integrated on CMOS-compatible doped silica MRRs using a large-area, transfer-free, layer-by-layer GO coating method together with photolithography and lift-off processes, yielding precise control of the film thickness, placement, and coating length. The high Kerr nonlinearity and low loss of the GO films combined with the strong light-matter interaction within the MRRs results in a significant improvement in the FWM efficiency in the hybrid MRRs. Detailed FWM measurements are performed at different pump powers and resonant wavelengths for the uniformly coated MRRs with 1−5 layers of GO as well as the patterned devices with 10−50 layers of GO. The experimental results show good agreement with theory, achieving up to ~7.6-dB enhancement in the FWM conversion efficiency (CE) for an MRR uniformly coated with 1 layer of GO and ~10.3-dB for a patterned device with 50 layers of GO. By fitting the measured CE as a function of pump power for devices with different numbers of GO layers, we also extract the dependence of GO’s third-order nonlinearity on layer number and pump power, revealing interesting physical insights about the evolution of the layered GO films from 2D monolayers to quasi bulk-like behavior. These results confirm the high nonlinear optical performance of integrated photonic resonators incorporated with 2D layered GO films.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: microcombs; optical neural networks; neuromorphic computing, artificial intelligence; Kerr microcombs; convolutional neural network
Online: 16 November 2020 (13:30:14 CET)
Convolutional neural networks (CNNs), inspired by biological visual cortex systems, are a powerful category of artificial neural networks that can extract the hierarchical features of raw data to greatly reduce the network parametric complexity and enhance the predicting accuracy. They are of significant interest for machine learning tasks such as computer vision, speech recognition, playing board games and medical diagnosis [1-7]. Optical neural networks offer the promise of dramatically accelerating computing speed to overcome the inherent bandwidth bottleneck of electronics. Here, we demonstrate a universal optical vector convolutional accelerator operating beyond 10 Tera-FLOPS (floating point operations per second), generating convolutions of images of 250,000 pixels with 8-bit resolution for 10 kernels simultaneously — enough for facial image recognition. We then use the same hardware to sequentially form a deep optical CNN with ten output neurons, achieving successful recognition of full 10 digits with 900 pixel handwritten digit images with 88% accuracy. Our results are based on simultaneously interleaving temporal, wavelength and spatial dimensions enabled by an integrated microcomb source. This approach is scalable and trainable to much more complex networks for demanding applications such as unmanned vehicle and real-time video recognition.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: optical neural network; microcomb
Online: 12 March 2020 (03:41:39 CET)
Optical artificial neural networks (ONNs) — analog computing hardware tailored for machine learning [1,2] — have significant potential for ultra-high computing speed and energy efficiency . We propose a new approach to architectures for ONNs based on integrated Kerr micro-comb sources  that is programmable, highly scalable and capable of reaching ultra-high speeds. We experimentally demonstrate the building block of the ONN — a single neuron perceptron — by mapping synapses onto 49 wavelengths of a micro-comb to achieve a high single-unit throughput of 11.9 Giga-FLOPS at 8 bits per FLOP, corresponding to 95.2 Gbps. We test the perceptron on simple standard benchmark datasets — handwritten-digit recognition and cancer-cell detection — achieving over 90% and 85% accuracy, respectively. This performance is a direct result of the record small wavelength spacing (49GHz) for a coherent integrated microcomb source, which results in an unprecedented number of wavelengths for neuromorphic optics. Finally, we propose an approach to scaling the perceptron to a deep learning network using the same single micro-comb device and standard off-the-shelf telecommunications technology, for high-throughput operation involving full matrix multiplication for applications such as real-time massive data processing for unmanned vehicle and aircraft tracking.