Working Paper Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Enhancing Third Order Nonlinear Optics in Integrated Ring Resonators with 2D Material Films

Version 1 : Received: 6 March 2020 / Approved: 6 March 2020 / Online: 6 March 2020 (05:33:51 CET)

How to cite: Wu, J.; Yang, Y.; Qu, Y.; Jia, L.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, X.; Chu, S.T.; Little, B.E.; Morandotti, R.; Jia, B.; Moss, D.J. Enhancing Third Order Nonlinear Optics in Integrated Ring Resonators with 2D Material Films. Preprints 2020, 2020030107 Wu, J.; Yang, Y.; Qu, Y.; Jia, L.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, X.; Chu, S.T.; Little, B.E.; Morandotti, R.; Jia, B.; Moss, D.J. Enhancing Third Order Nonlinear Optics in Integrated Ring Resonators with 2D Material Films. Preprints 2020, 2020030107

Abstract

Layered two-dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO) films are integrated with micro-ring resonators (MRRs) to experimentally demonstrate enhanced nonlinear optics in the form of four-wave mixing (FWM). Both uniformly coated and patterned GO films are integrated on CMOS-compatible doped silica MRRs using a large-area, transfer-free, layer-by-layer GO coating method together with photolithography and lift-off processes, yielding precise control of the film thickness, placement, and coating length. The high Kerr nonlinearity and low loss of the GO films combined with the strong light-matter interaction within the MRRs results in a significant improvement in the FWM efficiency in the hybrid MRRs. Detailed FWM measurements are performed at different pump powers and resonant wavelengths for the uniformly coated MRRs with 1−5 layers of GO as well as the patterned devices with 10−50 layers of GO. The experimental results show good agreement with theory, achieving up to ~7.6-dB enhancement in the FWM conversion efficiency (CE) for an MRR uniformly coated with 1 layer of GO and ~10.3-dB for a patterned device with 50 layers of GO. By fitting the measured CE as a function of pump power for devices with different numbers of GO layers, we also extract the dependence of GO’s third-order nonlinearity on layer number and pump power, revealing interesting physical insights about the evolution of the layered GO films from 2D monolayers to quasi bulk-like behavior. These results confirm the high nonlinear optical performance of integrated photonic resonators incorporated with 2D layered GO films.

Subject Areas

2D materials; micro-ring resonator; graphene oxide; Kerr nonlinearity; four-wave mixing; integrated optics

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