ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pseudomonas; antimicrobial; QSAR; chemical descriptors; machine-learning; KNN; support vector classifier; AdaBoost
Online: 4 February 2021 (22:04:37 CET)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacillus included among the six "ESKAPE" microbial species with an outstanding ability to "escape" currently used antibiotics and developing new antibiotics against it is of the highest priority. Whereas minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been used previously for QSAR model development, disk diffusion results (inhibition zones) have not been apparently used for this purpose in the literature, and we decided to explore their use in this sense. We developed multiple QSAR methods using several machine learning algorithms (Support vector classifier, K Nearest Neighbors, Random Forest Classifier, Decision Tree Classifier, AdaBoost Classifier, Logistic Regression, and Naive Bayes Classifier). The main descriptors used in building the models belonged to the families of adjacency matrix, constitutional descriptors, first highest eigenvalue of Burden matrix, centered Moreau-Broto autocorrelation, and averaged and centered Moreau-Broto autocorrelation descriptors. A total of 32 models were built, of which 28 were selected and stacked to create a meta-model. In terms of balanced accuracy, the best performance was provided by KNN, SVM and AdaBoost algorithms, but the ensemble method had slightly superior results in nested cross-validation.
Subject: Keywords: c-src-tyrosine kinase; QSAR; molecular descriptors; virtual screening; drug discovery; cancer; molecular docking
Online: 25 October 2019 (11:21:43 CEST)
Prototype of a family of at least nine members, c-src tyrosine kinase is a therapeutically interesting target, because its inhibition might be of interest not only in a number of malignancies, but also in a diverse array of conditions, from neurodegenerative pathologies to certain viral infections. Computational methods in drug discovery are considerably cheaper than conventional methods and offer opportunities of screening very large numbers of compounds in conditions that would be simply impossible within the wet lab experimental settings. We have explored the use of global QSAR models and molecular ligand docking in the discovery of new c-src tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Using a data set of 1038 compounds from ChEMBL and 19 blocks of molecular descriptors, we have developed over 200 QSAR classification models, based on six machine learning algorithms and 17 feature selection methods. We have selected 49 with reasonably good performance (positive predictive value and balanced accuracy higher than 70% in nested cross validation) and the models were assembled by stacking with a simple majority vote and used for the virtual screening of over the “named” ZINC data set (over 100,000 compounds). 744 compounds were predicted by at least 50% of the QSAR models as active, 147 compounds were within the applicability domain and predicted by at least 75% of the models to be active. The latter 147 compounds were submitted to molecular ligand docking using Vina and Ledock, and a number of 90 were predicted to be active based on the binding energy. External data from CHEMBL and PUBCHEM confirmed that at least 7.83% (in the case of QSAR) or 6.67% (in the case of integrated QSAR and molecular docking) of the compounds are active on the c-src target.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0277.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Solidago vigaurea L.; European goldenrod; Asteraceae; ethnomedicinal; phytochemistry; distribution; pharmacological activity
Online: 13 October 2020 (11:38:26 CEST)
Solidago virgaurea L. (European goldenrod, Woundwort), Asteraceae, is a familiar medicinal plant in Europe and other parts of the world, widely used and among the most researched species from its genus. The aerial parts of European goldenrod have long been used for urinary tract conditions and as an anti-inflammatory agent in the traditional medicine of different peoples. Its main chemical constituents are flavonoids (mainly derived from quercetin and kaempferol), C6-C1 and C6-C3 compounds, terpenes (mostly from the essential oil), and a large number of saponin molecules (mainly virgaureasaponins and solidagosaponins). Published research on its potential activities is critically reviewed here: antioxidant, antiinflammatory, analgesic, spasmolitic, antihypertensive, diuretic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasite, cytotoxic and antitumor, antimutagenic, antiadipogenic, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, and antisenescence. The evidence concerning its potential benefits is mainly derived from non-clinical studies, some effects are rather modest, whereas others are more promising, but need more confirmation in both non-clinical models and clinical trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0325.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: dental caries; prevention; clinical trials; herbal; scoping review
Online: 27 November 2019 (03:57:04 CET)
It is currently recognized that an injudicious strategy in the last decades has been not only focusing of research typically on caries in children, but also the narrow focusing on fluoride, because despite sufficient availability of fluoride in water and oral healthcare products, caries levels escalate steadily as people get older and caries remain a main public health issue to be settled. In the last two decades the scientific community intensified efforts of exploring other products for caries prevention, herbal products being one of these approaches. Because preliminary evidence indicated that clinical trials for caries prevention with herbal products are heterogeneous in design, quality and products evaluated, we performed a scoping review intended to explore the main characteristics of such clinical trials. From an initial collection of 1986 unique papers from different literature databases, 56 articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The species investigated, dosage forms, study designs, duration of intervention, controls, endpoints, quality of reporting and risk of bias are discussed. 85.71% of the trials reviewed here reported positive results but given the methodological flaws and biases affecting them, it is difficult to conclude on the efficacy of those products based on the studies published thus far.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: DILIrank; DILI; drug hepatotoxicity; QSAR; nested cross-validation; virtual screening; in silico
Online: 14 February 2020 (02:24:04 CET)
Drug induced liver injury (DILI) remains one of the challenges in the safety profile of both authorized drugs and candidate drugs and predicting hepatotoxicity from the chemical structure of a substance remains a challenge worth pursuing, being also coherent with the current tendency for replacing non-clinical tests with in vitro or in silico alternatives. In 2016 a group of researchers from FDA published an improved annotated list of drugs with respect to their DILI risk, constituting “the largest reference drug list ranked by the risk for developing drug-induced liver injury in humans”, DILIrank. This paper is one of the few attempting to predict liver toxicity using the DILIrank dataset. Molecular descriptors were computed with the Dragon 7.0 software, and a variety of feature selection and machine learning algorithms were implemented in the R computing environment. Nested (double) cross-validation was used to externally validate the models selected. A number of 78 models with reasonable performance have been selected and stacked through several approaches, including the building of multiple meta-models. The performance of the stacked models was slightly superior to other models published. The models were applied in a virtual screening exercise on over 100,000 compounds from the ZINC database and about 20% of them were predicted to be non-hepatotoxic.