ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0375.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: unsupervised machine learning; hierarchical learning; computational representation; computational cognitive modeling; contextual modeling; classification; IoT data modeling
Online: 31 January 2020 (04:38:51 CET)
The term Concept has been a prominent part of investigations in psychology and neurobiology where, mostly, it is mathematically or theoretically represented. The Concepts are also studied computationally through their symbolic, distributed and hybrid representations. The majority of these approaches focused on addressing concrete concepts notion, but the view of the abstract concept is rarely explored. Moreover, most computational approaches have a predefined structure or configurations. The proposed method, Regulated Activation Network (RAN), has an evolving topology and learns representations of Abstract Concepts by exploiting the geometrical view of Concepts, without supervision. In the article, the IRIS data was used to demonstrate: the RAN's modeling; flexibility in concept identifier choice; and deep hierarchy generation. Data from IoT's Human Activity Recognition problem is used to show automatic identification of alike classes as abstract concepts. The evaluation of RAN with 8 UCI benchmarks and the comparisons with 5 Machine Learning models establishes the RANs credibility as a classifier. The classification operation also proved the RAN's hypothesis of abstract concept representation. The experiments demonstrate the RANs ability to simulate psychological processes (like concept creation and learning) and carry out effective classification irrespective of training data size.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0277.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: CREB; cryotherapy; gene expression; icing; mitochondria; Pgc-1α; transcription
Online: 25 April 2019 (08:07:44 CEST)
Local cryotherapy is widely used as a treatment for sports-related skeletal muscle injury. However, its molecular mechanisms are unknown. To clarify these mechanisms, in this study, we applied one to three 15-min cold stimulations at 4 °C to various cell lines (in vitro), the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle (ex vivo), and mouse limbs (in vivo). In the in vitro assay, cAMP response element-binding protein 1 (CREB1) was markedly phosphorylated (as pCREB1) and CREB-binding protein (CBP) was recruited to pCREB-1 in response to two or three cold stimulations. In a reporter assay with the cAMP-responsive element, the signals significantly increased after two to three cold stimulations at 4 °C. In the ex vivo study, CREB-targeting genes were significantly upregulated following two or three cold stimulations. The in vivo experiment disclosed that cold stimulation of a mouse limb for 9 days significantly increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and upregulated genes such as Pgc-1α involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. The foregoing results suggest that local cryotherapy increases CREB transcription and upregulates CREB-targeting genes in a manner dependent on cold stimulation frequency and duration. This information may serve as an impetus for further investigations into local cryotherapy as a treatment for sports-related skeletal muscle trauma.