ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0428.v1
Online: 16 March 2021 (14:29:44 CET)
Vigina radiata (Mung bean) is an important legume species belongs to the family Fabaceae, cultivated in varies region of Ethiopia for its nutritional values. The nutritional composition of the crop affected by different biotic and environmental stress which depends on growth environment. The aim of the present study was to determine the concentrations of selected heavy metals (Pb, Cu and Cr) in seed of mung bean collected from Shewarobit, Northcentral Ethiopia using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Acid digestion with HCl, HNO3 and HClO4 for 1hr at temperature of 90oC to 95oC by hot plate digester. The level of the heavy metals in the samples were 2.51 mg/L, Pb; 6.53 mg/L, Cu; and 0.38 mg/L, Cr respectively. The concentration of copper (Cu) in the seed of mung bean was higher than the other target metals (Pb and Cr) whereas, Cr occurred in least concentration. The overall accuracy of the method obtained from spiking experiment (recovery) was within the range 80 to 120%, which accounts 115.75%, 97.5%, 101.17% for Pb Cr and Cu respectively. Notably, these results indicating the reliability and applicability of the procedure for extraction of studied metals. The concentration of heavy metals in edible seed of mungbean is low as compared to WHO/FAO recommendation and absolutely safe for consumption in the study area. Thus, producer should follow similar agroecological managements of the crop production to maintain heavy metal concentration of such in the crop.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0400.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Geminivirus; bipartite begomovirus; transcriptional trans-activation; abscisic acid; promoter motifs; AC2; BV1; mungbean yellow mosaic virus
Online: 16 November 2020 (08:44:26 CET)
Geminiviruses possess single-stranded, circular DNA genomes, and control the transcription of their late genes, including BV1 of many bipartite begomoviruses, through transcriptional activation by the early expressing AC2 protein. DNA binding by AC2 is not sequence-specific, hence the specificity of AC2 activation is thought to be conferred by plant transcription factors (TFs) recruited by AC2 in infected cells. However, the exact TFs AC2 recruits are not known for most viruses. Here we report a systematic examination of the BV1 promoter (PBV1) of mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) for conserved promoter motifs. We found that MYMV PBV1 contains three abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive elements (ABREs) within its first 70 nucleotides. Deleting these ABREs, or mutating them all via site-directed mutagenesis, abolished the capacity of PBV1 to respond to AC2-mediated transcriptional activation. Furthermore, ABRE and other related ABA-responsive elements were prevalent in more than a dozen Old World begomoviruses we inspected. Together these findings suggest that ABA-responsive TFs may be recruited by AC2 to BV1 promoters of these viruses to confer specificity to AC2 activation. These observations are expected to guide the search for the actual TF(s), furthering our understanding of the mechanism of AC2 action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0152.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: permanent raised beds; strip tillage; rice-maize-mungbean system; crop residue management; soil health; productivity; profitability
Online: 18 February 2019 (09:57:46 CET)
Farmers’ conventional tillage (CT) and residue removal practices in rice-maize systems in South Asia’s Eastern Gangetic Plain (EGP) are input-intensive, costly and soil degradative. We conducted a rice-maize-mungbean (R-M-MB) system experiment with six tillage and three residue management treatments in Bangladesh representing the EGP. Maize yields were significantly (p≤0.05) higher under permanent (PB) or fresh (FB) beds and strip tillage (ST) than CT but no differences in mungbean yields. Rice yields under PB, FB and CT were similar, but significantly higher than under zero or minimum tillage and ST. Yields of all crops increased significantly (p≤0.05) with residue retention compared to no retention. Total system productivity was highest under PB followed by FB and ST. Compared with CT, gross margins in PB, FB and ST increased by 18, 13 and 11%, and soil organic matter (SOM) and total N contents across tillage treatments increased by 11-16% and 12-24%, respectively. After three years, SOM and total N and available P and S contents increased significantly (p≤0.05) by residue retention. Results demonstrate the potential of PB, FB and ST with residue retention, for improving the productivity, profitability and soil health under R-M-MB systems in Bangladesh and similar soils in the EGP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0001.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Mungbean; low phosphorus; drought stress; organic acid exudation; photosynthetic rate; relative water content; membrane stability index; stress susceptibility index; principal component analysis ranking
Online: 1 December 2020 (08:05:27 CET)
To understand the physiological basis of tolerance to combined stresses to low phosphorus (P) and drought in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek), a core set of 100 accessions were evaluated in hydroponics at sufficient (250 μM) and low (3 μM) P, and exposed to drought (dehydration) stress. The principal component analysis and ranking of accessions based on relative values revealed that IC280489, EC397142, IC76415, IC333090, IC507340 and IC121316 performed superior while IC119005, IC73401, IC488526 and IC325853 performed poorly in all treatments. Selected accessions were evaluated in soil under control (sufficient P, irrigated), low P (without P, irrigated), drought (sufficient P, withholding irrigation) and combined stress (low P, withholding irrigation). Under combined stress, a significant reduction in gas exchange traits (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, instantaneous water use efficiency), P uptake in seed and shoot was observed under combined stress as compared to individual stresses. Among accessions, IC488526 was most sensitive while IC333090 and IC507340 exhibited tolerance to individual or combined stress. The water balance and low P adaptation traits like membrane stability index, relative water content, specific leaf weight, organic acid exudation, biomass, grain yield and P uptake can be used as physiological markers to evaluate for agronomic performance. Accessions with considerable resilience to low P and drought stress can be either used as ‘donors’ in Vigna breeding program or cultivated in areas with limited P and water availability or both.