ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0367.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Psychosocial impact; anxiety; Covid-19 stressors; policies; public health emergencies; pandemics
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:17:13 CET)
Purpose: A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 was identified as the cause of COVID-19 eventually led to the declaration of Public health emergency of international concern and a pandemic by WHO due to its exponential global spread. Present study was conducted to investigate the impact of second wave of pandemic on mental wellbeing and social behaviors among university students of Pakistan during this crucial period of COVID-19 infection. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was designed to evaluate the psychosocial impact during the current COVID-19 outbreak among the students of The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Snowball sampling or chain referral sampling procedure was adopted to recruit the participants in the study. Verbal informed consent was taken from all participants before recruitment in the study irrespective of their gender, age and socioeconomic status. Results: Mental health of university students during COVID-19 epidemic was affected to a varying degree revealing that 26.66% were recorded to have mild, 27.15% moderate and 17.04% suffering from severe anxiety out of total 1029 students. Students who were residing in urban areas with parents and having a steady family income were negatively associated and found protective factors against anxiety. However, having a relative or an acquaintance infected with COVID-19 was an independent risk factor for experienced anxiety. Positively associated factors with the level of anxiety symptoms included economic stressors, effects on daily-life, and academic delays whereas social support was negatively correlated with anxiety in COVID-19 related stressors. Conclusion: Public health emergencies and such pandemic are exerting serious psychological impacts on university students. It is recommended that the higher authorities should plan better policies to reduce this impact for the provision of high quality and timely crisis-oriented psychological services to university students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0611.v1
Online: 25 May 2021 (13:22:59 CEST)
Academic failure, low attendance, financial difficulties, and mental illness are some of the major reasons most students drop out of high schools. We investigated how high school dropout risk is affected by socioeconomic, demographic, and institutional characteristics. Therefore, research design is composed of a literature review, Questionnaire surveys by interviewing each student. Besides, the analysis and statistical modelling, the Logistic Regression method was used. The results show that academic performance, job, lack of interest and low learning ability were the significant individual characteristics that affect the high school dropout. Moreover, parental characteristics, including financial condition, lack of awareness, and education, are significant factors associated with high school dropout rates. Some other related factors, such as adaptability and influence of the peer groups, abandoning school by siblings, and extra responsibility at home and a joint family system, are also some notable factors that significantly affect the dropout rate in schools Malakand District of KP province. This research study delivered the results that contribute to the literature in education to identify different factors like student's own, parental, institutional, and household characteristics, which affect a student being a dropout from high school in Malakand district Pakistan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0034.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: Brinkman type ﬂuid; Fourier Integral transformation; side walls; oscillating shear stress
Online: 5 February 2018 (11:43:42 CET)
In this paper Brinkman type ﬂuid over an inﬁnite plate between side walls is being investigated. The ﬂow is generated by oscillating shear stress of the bottom plate and the solutions are obtained by using Fourier integral transformation. The obtained results are presented in steady and transient states for both sin and cos shear stresses. The general solutions are reduced to some special cases corresponding, namely to the Brinkman type ﬂuid over an inﬁnite plate and ﬂow of a Newtonian viscous ﬂuid. Graphical illustrations are carried out to have in depth analysis of the involved physical parameters
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0542.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Cash holding; firm value; managerial optimism; financial constrained
Online: 22 June 2021 (14:03:51 CEST)
Cash holding is important for Chinese manufacturing firms coping with the increasing cost of financing and stiff market conditions. This study examines the impact of cash holding on the firm value of Chinese manufacturing firms. We find evidence that a non-linear relationship exists between cash holding and firm value in manufacturing firms of China. The study reveals that financially constrained firms having a higher level of cash holding negatively affects the firm value, while the unconstrained firms having a lower level of cash holding positively influences the firm value. Finally, this research is enriched by adopting the novel measure of managerial op-timism and reveals the interactive role of cash holding and optimism on firm value. The study concludes that managerial optimism influences the firm’s cash holding decisions and this is more costly for unconstrained firms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0359.v1
Online: 25 February 2020 (05:18:22 CET)
During December 2019, a novel coronavirus named as 2019-nCoV, has emerged in Wuhan, China. The human to human transmission of this virus has also been established. Untill now the virus has infected more than seven thousand people and has spread to fifteen countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared 2019-nCoV as global health emergency due to its outburst well beyond China. There is need to develop some vaccines or therapeutics to control or prevent 2019-nCoV infections. The bottleneck with current conventional approaches is that these require longer time for vaccine development. However, computer assisted approaches help us to produce effective vaccine in short time compared with conventional methods. In this study, bioinformatics analysis was used to predict B cell and T cell epitopes of surface glycoprotein of 2019-nCoV that could be suitable to trigger significant immune response. The sequence of surface glycoprotein was collected from the database and analyzed to identify the immunogenic epitope. Both B cell and T cell epitopes were analyzed so the predicted epitopes can stimulate both cellular and humoral immune responses. We predicted 13 B cell and 05 T cell epitopes that later on were joined with GPGPG linker to make a single peptide. This computational approach to design a multi epitope peptide vaccine against emerging 2019-nCoV allows us to find novel immunogenic epitopes against the antigen targets of surface 2019-nCoV surface glycoprotein. This multi epitope peptide vaccine may prove effective to combat 2019-nCoV infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0022.v1
Online: 2 May 2020 (16:29:38 CEST)
During December 2019, a novel coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 has emerged in Wuhan, China. The human to human transmission of this virus has also been established. The virus has so far infected more than 2 million people and spread over 200 countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared COVID-19 a global health emergency due to its spread well beyond China. It has been established that this virus originates from bats and uses an intermediate host for transfer to humans. The knowledge about the intermediate host is important to find the virus shuttle mechanism to stop future outbreaks. For this, the genetic and structural analysis of coronaviruses spike proteins was performed using a computer-assisted approach.To conduct the In silico analysis, 43 sequences of spike protein belong to different species were retrieved from the NCBI nucleotide database. Pairwise and multiple sequence alignments were performed to check the similarities and differences of the retrieved sequences. Moreover, to highlight relationships among different species, phylogenetics analysis was performed using the MEGA software tool. In the end, protein structure alignment (superimposition) was performed against the reference structure by UCSF Chimera software. The results highlighted that the maximum similarity of human protein was found against Bat and Pangolinsequences. Moreover, among Bat and Pangolin, the highest similarity was found against pangolin based on phylogenetics analysis. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 transfers from bats to humans through pangolins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0498.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: CML; Disease progression; common biomarker; drug target; ANRD36.
Online: 25 August 2021 (16:03:46 CEST)
Background: Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is initiated in bone marrow due to chromosomal translocation t(22;9) leading to fusion oncogene BCR-ABL. Targeting BCR-ABL by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have changed fatal CML into an almost curable disease. Despite that, TKIs lose their effectiveness due to disease progression. Unfortunately, mechanism of CML progression is poorly understood and common biomarkers for CML progression are unavailable. This study was conducted to find out novel biomarkers of CML progression by employing whole exome sequencing (WES).Materials and Methods: WES of accelerated phase (AP-) and blast crisis (BC-) CML patients was carried out, with chronic phase CML (CP-CML) patients as control. After DNA library preparation and exome enrichment, clustering and sequencing was carried out using Illumina platforms. Statistical analysis was carried out using [SAS/STAT] software version 9.4 and R package employed to find mutations shared exclusively by all AP-/BC-CML. Confirmation of mutations was carried out using Sanger sequencing and protein structure modelling using I-Tasser followed by mutant generation and visualization using PyMOL. Results: Three novel genes (ANKRD36, ANKRD36B and PRSS3) were mutated exclusively in all AP-/BC-CML patients. Only ANKRD36 gene mutations (c.1183_1184 delGC and c.1187_1185 dupTT) were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Protein modelling studies showed that mutations induce structural changes in ANKRD36 protein. Conclusions: Our studies show that ANKRD36 is a potential common biomarker and drug target of early CML progression. ANKRD36 is yet uncharacterized in human. It has the highest expression in bone marrow, specifically myeloid cells. We recommend carrying out further studies to explore the role of ANKRD36 in biology and progression of CML.