ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1437.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Life expectancy; Saudi Arabia; United Arab Emirates; Structural equation model; Macroeconomic; Sociodemographic; Health status resources
Online: 20 June 2023 (11:44:24 CEST)
Despite marked advancements, life expectancy (LE) growth in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has remained stagnant compared to other developed nations. This study aims to investigate the significant correlation between macroeconomic (ME), sociodemographic (SD), and health status-resources (HSR) factors and LE to formulate an explanatory model for Saudi Arabia and the UAE – a previously unexplored area. Utilizing an ecological, retrospective, time-series study design, we delved into secondary data on SD, ME, HSR, and LE of the UAE population spanning three decades (1980-2020). We employed the partial least squares-structural equation modeling for statistical analysis. Our analysis revealed significant direct impacts of HSR on LE for Saudi Arabia (Beta=0.958, p<0.001) and the UAE (Beta=0.716, p<0.001). Furthermore, we discerned a notable indirect influence of ME on LE, mediated through SD and HSR for Saudi Arabia (Beta=0.507, p<0.001) and UAE (Beta=0.509, p<0.001), along with a considerable indirect effect of SD on LE through HSR (Saudi Arabia: Beta=0.529, p<0.001; UAE: Beta=0.711, p<0.001). This study underscores the mediating role of a nexus of ME-SD-HSR factors on LE in Saudi Arabia and the UAE. Consequently, these findings signal an imperative need for holistically policy interventions addressing ME, SD, and HSR factors, aiming to alter health behaviors and improve LE projections for Saudi Arabia and the UAE in the long run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0780.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Infant mortality rate; Macroeconomic; Sociodemographic; Health status and resources; Oman; Partial least squares structural equation model.
Online: 23 April 2023 (07:14:43 CEST)
Background: The infant mortality rate (IMR) is an important reflection of the well-being of infants and the overall health of the population. This study aims to examine the macroeconomic (ME), sociodemographic (SD), and health status and resources (HSR) effects on IMR, as well as how they may interact with each other. Methods: A retrospective time-series study using yearly data for Oman from 1980 to 2022. Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) was utilized to develop the exploratory model of the determinants of IMR. Results: The model indicates that HSR determinants directly but negatively affect IMR (= -0.617, p<0.001). SD directly and positively affects IMR (= 0.447, p<0.001). ME only indirectly affects IMR (=-0.854, p<0.001). ME determinants also exert some direct influences on both HSR (= 0.722, p<0.001) and SD (= -0.916, p<0.001) determinants. Conclusions: These findings indicate that an integrated policy that addresses socioeconomic and health-related factors and the overall ME environment is necessary for the health and well-being of the children and the population overall in Oman.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1216.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: mosquito; MENA region; mosquito-borne disease; population at risk; climate; environment
Online: 20 November 2023 (05:06:27 CET)
Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are a group of illnesses transmitted by mosquitoes and can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. These diseases represent a significant global burden of infectious diseases, including morbidity and mortality. This systematic review delves into the multifaceted factors contributing to the spread of mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Following PRISMA guidelines, a thorough analysis of peer-reviewed articles from May 1990 to Jan 2023 was conducted, highlighting the interplay of population, environmental, disease, and mosquito factors in disease transmission and prevalence. The review incorporated 31 studies that revealed a complex relationship between various risk factors and the presence of MBDs. Significant associations were observed with age, certain occupations, environmental conditions such as rainfall and temperature, sanitation practices, specific pathogen variants, clinical symptoms, and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Conversely, gender, socioeconomic status, educational status, and certain sanitation-related factors showed inconsistent association with the spread of MBDs. The review underscores the need for targeted interventions, including vector control, improved sanitation, and educational campaigns to mitigate the spread of MBDs in the MENA region. This review could guide research studies to address data gaps and assist in developing effective surveillance programs in the MENA region. This work emphasizes the need for region-specific public health strategies and further research to understand and curb the burden of these diseases effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0207.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Social Anxiety Disorder; Social Phobia, Online Survey; Adult, Oman; Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale
Online: 8 August 2020 (09:39:49 CEST)
Background: Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is among the most common anxiety disorders worldwide with data largely emerging from the Euro-American and Pacific Rim populations. In contrast, there is a dearth of studies among the populations of Arabian Gulf countries including Oman. This study has two interrelated aims: (i) to explore the prevalence of SAD among Omani adults, and (ii) to tease out the links between sociodemographic factors and SAD in Oman. Methods: A cross-sectional study via an online survey was conducted among 1019 adult Omani nationals residing in Oman. The presence of SAD was assessed using the Arabic version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Result: Nearly half the participants (45.9%, n=468) endorsed themselves as having features of SAD as defined by LSAS. In the multivariate logistic analysis, participants below 40 years of age were 1.6 times (OR=1.568, p=0.026) more likely to have SAD than those who were 40 and older. Women were 1.3 times (OR=1.348, p=0.038) more likely to endorse SAD than men. Participants who had secondary or undergraduate education were respectively 1.5 times (OR=1.45, p=0.014) and 2.5 times (OR=2.509, p<.001) to have SAD than who were postgraduates. Conclusion: The present data suggest that 45.9% of the participants reached the cut-off for case-ness in LSAS, which is high compared to reports from other populations. As online survey respondents tend to belong to similar demographics, the current results need not be representative of the Omani adult population, which calls for studies that adopt more inclusive survey methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0397.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Familial hypercholesterolemia; Neuropsychological outcomes; Cognition; Health literacy; Quality of Life; Affective ranges; HADS; WHO-QOL BREF; Oman; Famiilial hypercholesterolemia; Neuropsychological outcomes; Cognition; Health Literacy; Affective ranges; HADS; Oman
Online: 26 July 2022 (08:16:04 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Over the past few years, there has been an increasing interest to view the diagnosis of Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) through the lens of the biopsychosocial model. However, other than a few epidemiological surveys, there is a dearth of studies from emerging economies that have examined FH using the biological, psychological and socio-environmental facets of the aforementioned model. AIM. The three aims of the current study were as follows: (i) to examine the psychosocial status among patients with genetically confirmed FH, (ii) to compare the intellectual capacity and cognitive outcomes with a reference group, and (iii) to examine the relationship between health literacy and cognitive functioning. METHOD: Consecutive FH patients referred to the lipid clinic at a tertiary care center for an expert opinion were recruited into this study, conducted from September 2019 to March 2020. Information regarding psychosocial functioning, health literacy, quality of life, and affective ranges were surveyed. Indices of current reasoning ability (attention and concentration, memory, and executive functioning) were compared with an age-matched reference group. The current hypothesis also explored the impact of FH on health literacy and cognition. RESULT: A total of 70 participants out of 106 (response rate: 66.0%) initially agreed to participate. However, 18 out of 70 dropped out of the study, yielding a final total of 52 FH patients. With 27 (51.9%) males and 25 (48.1%) females, the mean participant age stood at 37.2 years (SD=9.2), ranging from 21 to 52 years of age. In the psychosocial data, thirty-two percent (n=17) of them had anxiety (HADS≥ 8), and twenty-five percent (n=13) had depressive symptoms (HADS≥ 8). The performance of the FH patients was significantly impaired compared to the control group on the indices of current reasoning ability and all domains of cognitive functioning. In univariate analysis conducted to compare cognitive functioning with health literacy status, only indices of attention and concentration emerged as being significant. CONCLUSION: To date, there are only a few studies employing the biopsychosocial paradigm to investigate the FH population. The current study indicates that the FH population is marked by an impediment in almost all of the core features that are characteristically assessed by the biopsychosocial approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1081.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Reminisce; Older Adults; Qualitative; Narrative; Life review; Oman
Online: 15 August 2023 (09:03:19 CEST)
Background: Reminiscence studies and life reviews have a number of proven advantages. Future generations gain by learning from elders' life experiences, as do older adults themselves who share their memories. Despite Oman's sizable geriatric population, research on older individuals' life experiences is scarce. Therefore, this study aims to explore the life experiences of older Omani individuals across their many life stages, from childhood to the present. Methods: This was a qualitative study design. A total of 13 Omani older adults (9 females and 4 males) with an average age of 68 years were recruited for this study. Socio-demographic and life review information was gathered according to a set of semi-structured guiding questions. The responses were then captured on audio recordings, which underwent transcription and translation. Thematic analysis techniques were applied to the extracted data. Results: Three main themes were evident in the study’s findings: Childhood memories, Friendships, and Relationships, as well as the elders’ past. Additionally, older adults passed on a number of gems of wisdom to be shared with the younger generations. Conclusion: This study aided in revealing the resiliency, social connections, and life reflections of Omani older adults. Based on these findings, future studies might explore particular aspects of older experiences and pinpoint solutions to improve their quality of life and well-being.