REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0181.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Miscanthus x giganteus; Miscanthus sinensis; Miscanthus robustus; Miscanthus nagara; lignin; monolignol ratio; low-input crops
Online: 25 January 2021 (14:51:06 CET)
Abstract: As a low-input crop, Miscanthus offers numerous advantages that, in addition to agricultural applications, permits its exploitation for energy, fuel, and material production. Depending on the Miscanthus genotype, season, and harvest time as well as plant component (leaf versus stem), correlations between structure and properties of the corresponding isolated lignins differ. Here, a comparative study is presented between lignins isolated from M. x giganteus, M. sinensis, M. robustus and M. nagara using a catalyst-free organosolv pulping process. The lignins from different plant constituents are also compared regarding their similarities and differences regarding monolignol ratio and important linkages. Results showed that the plant genotype has the weakest influence on monolignol content and interunit linkages. In contrast, structural differences are more significant among lignins of different harvest time and/or season. Analyses were performed using fast and simple methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Data was assigned to four different linkages (A: b-O-4 linkage, B: phenylcoumaran, C: resinol, D: b-unsaturated ester). In conclusion, A content is particularly high in leaf-derived lignins at just under 70 % and significantly lower in stem and mixture lignins at around 60 % and almost 65 %. The second most common linkage pattern is D in all isolated lignins, the proportion of which is also strongly dependent on the crop portion. Both stem and mixture lignins, have a relatively high share of approximately 20 % or more (maximum is M. sinensis Sin2 with over 30 %). In the leaf-derived lignins, the proportions are significantly lower on average. Stem samples should be chosen if the highest possible lignin content is desired, specifically from the M. x giganteus genotype, which revealed lignin contents up to 27 %. Due to the better frost resistance and higher stem stability, M. nagara offers some advantages compared to M. x giganteus. Miscanthus crops are shown to be very attractive lignocellulose feedstock (LCF) for second generation biorefineries and lignin generation in Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0038.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: biomass; chemometrics, genotype; HSQC NMR; lignin; Miscanthus X giganteus; monolignol ratio; principal component analysis
Online: 4 March 2019 (10:30:04 CET)
As a renewable industrial crop, Miscanthus offers numerous advantages, namely high photosynthesis activity (as a C4 plant) and exceptional CO2 fixation rate. These properties make Miscanthus very attractive for industrial exploitation, such as lignin generation. Here, we present a systematic study analyzing the correlation of the lignin structure with Miscanthus genotype and plant portion (stem versus leaf). Specifically, the ratio of the three monolignols and corresponding building blocks as well as the linkages formed between the units have been studied. Depending on the Miscanthus genotype and plant component (leaf versus stem), correlations between chemical structure and properties of the lignins have been determined, i.e. correlations in molecular weight, polydispersity and decomposition temperature. Lignin isolation was performed using non-catalyzed organosolv pulping and the structure analysis includes NREL, FTIR, UV-Vis, HSQC-NMR, TGA, pyrolysis GC/MS. Structural differences were found for stem and leaf-derived lignins. Compared to beech wood lignins, Miscanthus lignins possess lower molecular weight and narrow polydispersities (< 1.5 Miscanthus vs. > 2.5 beech) corresponding to improved homogeneity. In addition to conventional univariate analysis of FTIR spectra, multivariate chemometrics revealed distinct differences for aromatic in-plane deformations of stem versus leaf-derived lignins. These results emphasize the potential of Miscanthus as low-input resource and Miscanthus-derived lignin as promising agricultural feedstock.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0206.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Strip-mined land; bioenergy; biomass; energy crop; miscanthus; SWAT model; SWAT-CUP; runoff; nutrients; and water quality
Online: 21 January 2019 (10:57:36 CET)
Strip-mined land (SML) disturbed by coal-mining is the non-crop land resource that can be utilized to cultivate high-yielding energy crops such as miscanthus for bioenergy applications. However, the biomass yield potential, annual availability and environmental impacts on growing energy crops in SML are less understood. In this study, we estimated the yield potential of miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis) in SML and its environmental impacts on local streams using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). After calibration and validation of the SWAT model, the results demonstrated that miscanthus yield potentials were 2.6 (0.8−5.53), 10.0 (1.3−16.0) and 16.0 (1.34−26.0) Mg ha-1 with the fertilizer application rate of 0, 100, and 200 kg-N ha-1 respectively. Furthermore, cultivation of miscanthus in the SML has the potential to reduce sediment (~20%) and nitrate (2.5%−10.0 %) loads reaching to water streams with a marginal increase in phosphorus load. The available SML in the United States could produce about 10 to 16 dry Tg of biomass per year without negatively impacting the water quality. In conclusion, SML can provide a unique opportunity to produce biomass for bioenergy applications, while improving stream water quality in highly dense mining area (the Appalachian region) in the United States.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0120.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Miscanthus; remote sensing; UAV; multispectral images; high-throughput phenotyping; machine learning; yield prediction; trait estimation; PROSAIL; multi-sensor interoperability
Online: 8 June 2022 (09:44:59 CEST)
Miscanthus holds a great potential in the frame of the bioeconomy and yield prediction can help improving Miscanthus logistic supply chain. Breeding programs in several countries are attempting to produce high-yielding Miscanthus hybrids better adapted to different climates and end-uses. Multispectral images acquired from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in Italy and in the UK in 2021 and 2022 were used to investigate the feasibility of high-throughput phenotyping (HTP) of novel Miscanthus hybrids for yield prediction and crop traits estimation. An intercalibration procedure was performed using simulated data from the PROSAIL model to link vegetation indices (VIs) derived from two different multispectral sensors. Random forest algorithm estimated with good accuracy yield traits (light interception, plant height, green leaf biomass and standing biomass) using VIs time series and predicted yield using peak descriptor derived from VIs time series with 2.3 Mg DM ha-1 of RMSE. The study demonstrates the potential of UAVs multispectral in HTP applications and in yield prediction for providing important information needed to increase sustainable biomass production.