ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0417.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: CFRP; pulse ultrasonic method; cure monitoring
Online: 23 August 2018 (15:10:16 CEST)
This article discusses the results of a series of experiments on pulse ultrasonic cure monitoring of carbon fiber reinforced plastics applied to the pultrusion process. The aim of this study is to validate the hypothesis that pulse ultrasonic cure monitoring can be applied a) for profiles having small cross sections such as 7x0.5 mm and b) within the environment of the pultrusion process. Ultrasonic transducers are adhesively bonded to the pultrusion tool as actuators and sensors. The time-of-flight and the amplitude of an ultrasonic wave are analyzed to deduce the current curing state of the epoxy matrix. The experimental results show that ultrasonic cure monitoring is indeed applicable even to very thin cross sections. However, significant challenges can be reported when the techniques are used during the pultrusion process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0089.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: ultrasonic; cure monitoring; resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy
Online: 13 October 2017 (10:37:45 CEST)
With an ever broadening use of composite materials manufacturers are in high demand of efficient curing cycles to reduce costs and speed up production cycles. One method to to archive this goal is active cure monitoring to determine the exact time of curing needed. This article provides a novel method to measure the cure inside of closed tools by using ultrasonic spectroscopy. For this a simple experiment is used to show the change of the ultrasonic spectrum during the cure of an epoxy. The results clearly show a direct correlation of amplitude and state of cure where the amplitude reaches a global minimum at the glass point.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0421.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Guided Ultrasonic Waves; Continuous Wavelet Transformation; Instantaneous Phase Angle; Oscillation Phase; Numerical Simulation; Finite Element Method
Online: 22 December 2022 (06:45:27 CET)
Lamb waves occur in thin-walled structures in two wave modes, the symmetric and antisymmetric mode. Their oscillation on the structures‘ surfaces is either in phase (symmetric) or shifted by a phase angle of π (antisymmetric). In this work, a method is developed to compare the surfaces‘ oscillation phase relation. It is based on the evaluation of time signals regarding the instantaneous phase angle using the continuous wavelet transformation and as a comparative method the short-time Fourier transformation. For this purpose, numerical simulations utilizing the finite element method provide time signals from the top and bottom surface of different thin-walled structures. They differ with respect to their material settings and laminate configurations. The numerically obtained time signals are evaluated by the developed methods. The occurring oscillation phase differences on the top and bottom surface are studied and both methods are compared. Subsequently, the oscillation phase is evaluated experimentally for the wave propagation in a fiber metal laminate. It is shown that the method based on the continuous wavelet transformation is suitable for the evaluation of oscillation phase relations in time signals. Additionally, it is proven that fiber metal laminates show only two phase relations which indicates the occurrence of Lamb waves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0328.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: thin-film sensors; foil sensors; composite structures; structural bonding; multifunctional bondline; function conformity; sensor integration; structural health monitoring
Online: 18 August 2022 (03:41:32 CEST)
We present an integrable, sensor inlay for monitoring crack initiation and growth inside bondlines of structural carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) components. The sensing structures are sandwiched between crack stopping polyvinyliden fluoride (PVDF) and a thin reinforcing polyetherimide (PEI) layer. Good adhesion at all interfaces of the sensor system and to the CFRP material is crucial as weak bonds can counteract the desired crack stopping functionality. At the same time, the chosen reinforcing layer must withstand high strains, safely support the metallic measuring grids and possess outstanding fatigue strength. We show that this robust sensor system, which measures the strain at two successive fronts inside the bondline, allows to recognize cracks in the proximity of the inlay regardless of the mechanical loads. Feasibility is demonstrated by static load tests as well as cyclic long-term fatigue testing with up to 1,000,000 cycles. In addition to pure crack detection, crack distance estimation based on sensor signals is illustrated. The inlay integration process is developed with respect to industrial applicability. Thus, implementation of the proposed system will allow the potential of lightweight CFRP constructions to be better exploited by expanding the possibilities of structural adhesive bonding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0245.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: MEMS vibrometer; Structural Health Monitoring (SHM); Guided Ultrasonic Waves (GUW); Fiber Metal Laminates (FML); wafer bonding
Online: 17 June 2022 (03:55:30 CEST)
Structural health monitoring of lightweight constructions made of composite materials can be performed using guided ultrasonic waves. If modern fiber metal laminates are used, this requires integrated sensors that can record the inner displacement oscillations caused by the propagating guided ultrasonic waves. Therefore, we have developed a robust MEMS vibrometer that can be integrated with structural and functional compliance. This vibrometer is directly sensitive to the high-frequency displacements from structure-borne ultrasound when excited between its first and second natural frequency. The vibrometer is mostly realized by processes earlier developed for a pressure sensor but with additional femtosecond laser ablation and wafer bonding. The piezoresistive transducer made from silicon is encapsulated between top and bottom glass lids. The natural frequencies are experimentally determined using an optical micro vibrometer setup. The vibrometer functionality and usability for structural health monitoring are demonstrated on a customized test rig by recording application-relevant guided ultrasonic wave packages with a central frequency of 100 kHz at a distance of 200 mm from the exciting ultrasound transducer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0075.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: structural health monitoring; narrow specimen; guided ultrasonic waves; continuous wavelet transformation; numerical simulation; composite materials; GFRP
Online: 6 September 2022 (03:06:43 CEST)
This work investigates how integrated polyimide inlays with applied sensor bodies influence the guided ultrasonic wave propagation in narrow glass fiber-reinforced polymer specimens. Preliminary numerical simulations indicate that in a damping-free specimen, the inlays show reflections for the S0-mode propagation. Hence, an air-coupled ultrasonic technique and a 3D laser Doppler vibrometer measurement are used to measure different parts of the propagating waves’ displacement field after burst excitation at different frequencies. No significant reflections on the inlay can be seen in the experiments. However, it is shown that the reflections from the strip specimen’s narrow width cause periodical reflections that superimpose with the excited wave fronts. A continuous wavelet transformation in the time-frequency domain filters discontinuities from the measurement signal and is used for reconstruction of the time signals. The reconstructed signals are used in a spatial continuous wavelet transformation to identify the occurring wavelengths and hence to prove the assumption of reflections from the narrow edges. Since the amplitude of the reflections identified in the numerical data at the polyimide inlays are an order of magnitude smaller than the excited wave packages, it is concluded that material damping of the epoxy resin matrix extincts possible reflections from the inlays.