ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0095.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: relative Lagrangian formulation; thermoelastic solid; small on large; successive linear approximation; boundary value problem
Online: 27 August 2017 (11:36:35 CEST)
Besides the Lagrangian and the Eulerian descriptions, the motion of a body can also be expressed relative to the present configuration of the body, known as the relative motion description. It is interesting to consider such a relative motion description in general to formulate the basic system of field equations for solid bodies. In doing so, when the time increment from the present state is small enough, the nonlinear constitutive equations can be linearized relative to the present state so that the resulting system becomes linear. This will be done for thermoelastic materials with a brief comment on the exploitation of entropy principle in general. Relative Lagrangian formulation is based on the well-known ``small-on-large'' idea, and can be implemented for solving problems with large deformation in successive incremental manner. Some applications of such a formulation in numerical simulations are briefly reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0239.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Theory Of Art Keywords: Urban grey space; Space under bridge; Public Art; Micro-transformation; Regional culture; Art for all
Online: 26 April 2022 (10:55:46 CEST)
Since the 21st century, China's urbanization process has been rapid development, the concept and function of urban public space in the city has been gradually paid attention to. In order to guarantee life and water, most urban construction relies on rivers, and Bridges are the most important way to communicate between urban areas. The main functional part of the bridge is the span structure, that is, the bearing structure of the bridge, and the lower part of the "gray" space formed by the bridge structure. Considering the social level, with the economic growth and urbanization development, people have brought a better living environment and quality of life, and also improved the requirements for urban public environment. In the increasingly tense urban space, how to use and transform the space under the bridge is a problem that needs to be considered and solved. In view of this problem, in this study, we try to solve the micro-transformation of space under Bridges in cities through public art from the perspective of "regional culture" and "art for all". This paper analyzes the micro-transformation of space art under Bridges in two large cities of Shanghai and Foshan, namely, the space under Bridges under Songhong Road in Shanghai, the space under Bridges under Central Of Suzhou River and the space under Bridges under Pingsheng Bridge in Foshan. This paper discusses the cultural intervention of "regional culture" in the micro-transformation of the space under the bridge, and the influence and effect of "art for all" on the public art space under the bridge after the transformation to the community and the public.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0315.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Transformer; mammogram; multi-view; self-attention; computer-aided diagnosis; breast cancer; classification; deep learning
Online: 22 June 2022 (10:11:58 CEST)
Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been widely used in various medical imaging tasks. However, due to the intrinsic locality of convolution operation, CNNs generally cannot model long-range dependencies well, which are important for accurately identifying breast cancer from unregistered multi-view mammograms. This motivates us to leverage the architecture of Vision Transformers to capture long-range relationships of multiple mammograms from the same patient. For this purpose, we employ local Transformer blocks to separately learn patch relationships within a specific view (CC/MLO) of one side (right/left) of mammogram. The outputs from different views and sides are concatenated and fed into global Transformer blocks, to jointly learn patch relationships between two different views of the left and right breasts. To evaluate the proposed model, we retrospectively assembled a dataset involving 949 sets of CC and MLO view mammograms, which include 470 malignant cases and 479 normal or benign cases. We trained and evaluated the model using a five-fold cross-validation method. Without any arduous preprocessing steps (e.g., optimal window cropping, chest wall or pectoral muscle removal, two-view image registration, etc.), our two-view Transformer-based model achieves lesion classification accuracy of 77.0% and area under ROC curve (AUC = 0.814), outperforming state-of-the-art multi-view CNNs by 3.1% and 3%, respectively. Meanwhile, the new two-view model improves mammographic case classification accuracies of two single-view models by 7.4% (CC) and 4.5% (MLO), respectively. The promising results unveil the great potential of using Transformers to develop high-performing computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) schemes of mammography.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0505.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Mucilaginibacer rubeus；Mucilaginibacter kameinonensis; genomic island; evolution; heavy metal resistance; draft genome sequence; CTnDOT
Online: 22 October 2018 (15:21:18 CEST)
Heavy metals are compounds that can be hazardous and impair growth of living organisms. Bacteria have evolved the capability not only to cope with heavy metals but also to detoxify polluted environments. Three heavy metal-resistant strains of Mucilaginibacer rubeus and one of Mucilaginibacter kameinonensis were isolated from the gold/copper Zijin mining site, Longyan, Fujian, China. These strains were shown to exhibit high resistance to heavy metals with minimal inhibitory concentration reaching up to 3.5 mM Cu(II), 21 mM Zn(II), 1.2 mM Cd(II), and 10.0 mM As(III). Genomes of the four strains were sequenced by Illumina. Sequence analyses revealed the presence of a high abundance of heavy metal resistance (HMR) determinants. One of the strain, M. rubeus P2, carried genes encoding 6 putative P1B-1-ATPase, 5 putative P1B-3-ATPase and 4 putative Zn(II)/Cd(II) P1B-4 type ATPase, and 16 putative RND-type metal transporter systems. Moreover, the four genomes carry a high abundance of genes coding for putative metal binding chaperones. Analysis of the close vicinity of these HMR determinants uncovered the presence of clusters of genes potentially associated with mobile genetic elements. These loci include genes coding for tyrosine recombinases (integrases) and subunits of mating pore (type 4 secretion system) respectively allowing integration/excision and conjugative transfer of numerous genomic islands. Further in silico analyses revealed that their genetic organization and gene products resemble the Bacteroides integrative and conjugative element CTnDOT. These results highlight the pivotal role of genomic islands in the acquisition and dissemination of adaptive traits, allowing for rapid adaption of bacteria and colonization of hostile environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0125.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: GaN ultraviolet photodetector; periodic trapezoid column-shape patterned sapphire substrate; responsivity; UV-to-visible rejection ratio
Online: 18 October 2016 (08:19:48 CEST)
GaN ultraviolet photodetector with metal-semiconductor-metal structure is achieved by growing on a periodic trapezoid column-shape patterned sapphire substrate using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Under 5-V reverse bias, the photodetector fabricated on such patterned sapphire substrate exhibits a lower dark current, a higher photocurrent, and a 476 % enhancement in the maximum responsivity as compare with those of the photodetector fabricated on conventional flat sapphire substrate. It is also found that the much larger UV-to-visible rejection ratio and the fact that responsivity drops in a smaller cut-off region are observed from photodetector fabricated by using a periodic trapezoid column-shape patterned sapphire substrate. These phenomena may all be attributed to the reduction of threading dislocation density and the improved quality of GaN film, as well as the internal reflection and/or scattering effect on the interface between GaN film and the periodic trapezoid column-shape pattern of the substrate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0023.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: climate change; water cycle; downscaling; hydrological model; Yangtze River; Yellow River; Tibetan Plateau
Online: 8 October 2016 (11:29:05 CEST)
Climate change is a global issue that draws widespread attention from the international society. As an important component of the climate system, the water cycle is directly affected by climate change. Thus, it is very important to study the influences of climate change on the basin water cycle with respect to maintenance of healthy rivers, sustainable use of water resources, and sustainable socioeconomic development in the basin. In this study, by assessing the suitability of multiple General Circulation Models (GCMs) recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) and Automated Statistical Downscaling model (ASD) were used to generate future climate change scenarios. These were then used to drive distributed hydrologic models (Variable Infiltration Capacity, Soil and Water Assessment Tool) for hydrological simulation of the Yangtze River and Yellow River basins, thereby quantifying the effects of climate change on the basin water cycle. The results showed that suitability assessment adopted in this study could effectively reduce the uncertainty of GCMs, and that statistical downscaling was able to greatly improve precipitation and temperature outputs in global climate mode. Compared to a baseline period (1961–1990), projected future periods (2046–2065 and 2081–2100) had a slightly decreasing tendency of runoff in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin. In particular, a significant increase in runoff was observed during flood seasons in the southeast part. However, runoff of the upper Yellow River basin decreased continuously. The results provide a reference for studying climate change in major river basins of China.