ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: electromagnetic sensing; lift-off; eddy current; magnetic permeability; non-destructive testing
Online: 6 August 2021 (08:36:46 CEST)
Electromagnetic sensing has been used for diverse applications of non-destructive testing, including the surface inspection, measurement of properties, object characterization. However, the measurement accuracy could be significantly influenced by the lift-off between sensors and samples. To address the issue caused by lift-offs, various strategies have been proposed for the permeability measurement of ferromagnetic steels, which mainly involves different sensor designs and signal features (e.g., the zero-crossing feature). In this paper, a single high-frequency scenario for the permeability retrieval is introduced. By combining the signal of two sensing pairs, the retrieval of magnetic permeability is less affected by the lift-off of sensors. Unlike the previous strategy on reducing the lift-off effect (directly taking the phase term out of the integration) using the Dodd-Deeds analytical method, the proposed method is based on a high-frequency linear feature of the phase term. Therefore, this method has the merit of high accuracy and fast processing for the permeability retrieval (a simplified version of Dodd-Deeds analytical formulas after the integration). Experimental measurement has been carried out on the impedance measurement of designed sensors interrogating ferromagnetic dual-phase steels. For sensor lift-offs of up to 10 mm, the error of the permeability retrieval is controlled within 4 % under the optimal frequency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0387.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eddy current testing; lift-off invariance; property measurement; multi-frequency; non-destructive testing.
Online: 22 April 2021 (09:16:48 CEST)
Eddy current testing can be used to interrogate steels but it is hampered by the lift-off distance of the sensor. Previously, the lift-off point of intersection (LOI) feature has been found for the pulsed eddy current (PEC) testing. In this paper, a lift-off invariant inductance (LII) feature is proposed for the multi-frequency eddy current (MEC) testing, which merely targets the ferromagnetic steels. That is, at a certain working frequency, the measured inductance signal is found nearly immune to the lift-off distance of the sensor. Such working frequency and inductance are termed as the lift-off invariant frequency (LIF) and LII. Through simulations and experimental measurements of different steels under the multi-frequency manner, the LII has been verified to be merely related to the sensor parameters and independent of different steels. By referring to the LIF of the test piece and using an iterative inverse solver, one of the steel properties (either the electrical conductivity or magnetic permeability) can be reconstructed with a high accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0237.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eddy current testing; thickness measurement; finite-size; lift-off effect; non-destructive testing
Online: 9 February 2021 (12:04:32 CET)
In many advanced industrial applications, the thickness is a critical index, especially for metallic coatings. However, the variance of lift-off spacing between sensors and test pieces affects the measured voltage or impedance, which leads to unreliable results from the sensor. Massive research works have been proposed to address the lift-off issue, but few of them applies to the thickness measurement of planar metallic films with finite-size circular (disk) geometry. Previously, a peak-frequency feature from the swept-frequency inductance was used to compensate the measurement error caused by lift-offs, which was based on the slow-changing rate of impedance phase term in the Dodd-Deeds formulas. However, the phase of measured impedance is nearly invariant merely on a limited range of sample thicknesses and working frequencies. Besides, the frequency sweeping is time-consuming, where a recalibration is needed for different sensor setups applied to the online real-time measurement. In this paper, a single-frequency algorithm has been proposed, which is embedded in the measurement instrument for the online real-time retrieval of thickness. Owing to the single-frequency measurement strategy, the proposed method does not need to recalibrate for different sensor setups. The thickness retrieval is based on a triple-coil sensor (with one transmitter and two receivers). The thickness of metallic disk foils is retrieved from the measured electrical resistance of two transmitter-receiver sensing pairs. Experiments on materials of different electrical conductivities (from direct current), thicknesses and planar sizes (radii) have been carried out to verify the proposed method. The error for the thickness retrieval of conductive disk foils is controlled within 5 % for lift-offs up to 5 mm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0643.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eddy current; lift-off; material-independent; permeability measurement; non-destructive testing
Online: 30 October 2020 (14:36:29 CET)
Eddy current sensors can be used to test the characteristics and measure the parameters of the conductive samples. As the main obstacle of the multi-frequency eddy current sensor, the lift-off distance affects the effectiveness and accuracy of the measurement. In this paper, a material-independent algorithm has been proposed for the restoration of the lift-off distance when using the multi-frequency eddy current sensor, which is based on the approximation under the thin-skin effect. Experiment testing on the performance of the proposed method is presented. Results show that from the dual-frequency inductance, the lift-off distance could be restored with a maximum error of 0.24 mm for the distance up to 12 mm. Besides, the derived lift-off distance is used for the inversion of the magnetic permeability. Based on a lift-off insensitive inductance (LII) feature, the magnetic permeability of steels can be inversed in an iterative manner, with an error of less than 0.6 % for the lift-off distance up to 12 mm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0152.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eddy current testing; lift-off measurement; property measurement; non-destructive testing; dual-frequency eddy current (DEC) testing
Online: 7 October 2020 (09:26:06 CEST)
Lift-offs of the sensor could significantly affect the measurement signal and reconstruction of material properties when using the electromagnetic (inductive) eddy current sensor. Previously, various methods (including novel sensor designs, and features like zero-crossing frequency, lift-off point of intercept) have been used for eliminating the measurement error caused by the lift-off distance effect of the sensor. However, these approaches can only be applied for a small range of lift-off variations. In this paper, a linear relationship has been found between the sensor lift-off and ratio of dual-frequency eddy current signals, particularly under the high working dual frequencies. Based on this linear relationship, the lift-off variation can be reconstructed firstly with a small error of 2.5 % when its actual value is up to 10 mm (10.1 % for 20 mm). The reconstructed lift-off is used to further get the property of the material under a low single frequency. Experiments on different ferrous metals have been carried out for the testing of the reconstruction scheme. Since the inductance is more sensitive to the material property (and less sensitive to the lift-off) under low frequencies, the reconstruction error of the material property is much smaller than that of the lift-off, with 1.4 % under 12 mm (and 4.5 % under 20 mm).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0717.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eddy current testing; thickness measurement; non-destructive testing; lift-off; real-time monitoring
Online: 29 September 2020 (15:05:41 CEST)
Previously, various techniques have been proposed for reducing the lift-off effect on the thickness measurement of the non-magnetic films, including the peak-frequency feature and phase feature in the Dodd-Deed analytical formulation. To realise a real-time feedback response on the thickness monitoring, the phase term in the Dodd-Deeds formulation must be taken off the integration. Previous methods were based on the slow change rate of the phase term when compared to the rest of the term – the magnitude term. However, the change rate of the phase term is still considerable for a range of working frequencies. In this paper, a high-frequency feature has been found. That is, the ratio between the imaginary and real part of the phase term is proportional to the integral variable under high frequencies. Based on this proportion relationship, the phase term has been taken out; and a thickness algorithm has been proposed. By combing the measured impedance from the custom-built sensor (three coils), the thickness of the metallic film can be reconstructed. Experiments have been carried out for the verification of the proposed scenario. Results show that the thickness of the metal film can be reconstructed with a small error of less than 2 %, and immune to a reasonable range of lift-offs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eddy current sensor; defect orientation; angled crack, thin-skin regime; non-destructive testing.
Online: 9 December 2020 (10:57:15 CET)
Electromagnetic sensors have been used for inspecting small surface defects of metals. Based on the eddy-current thin-skin regime, a revised algorithm is proposed for a triple-coil drive-pickup eddy-current sensor scanning over long surface crack slots (10 mm) with different rotary angles. The method is validated by the voltage measurement of the designed EC sensor scanning over a benchmark (ferromagnetic) steel with surface defects of different depths and rotary angles. With an additional sensing coil for the designed EC sensor, the defect angle (or orientation) can be measured without spatially and coaxially rotating the excitation coil. By referring to the voltage change (due to the defect) diagram (voltage sum versus voltage different) of two sensing pairs, the rotary angle of the surface crack is retrieved with a maximum residual deviation of 3.5 %.