ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0380.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; autoantibodies; autoimmune endocrinopathies; long-COVID syndrome; molecular mimicry; thyroid gland; adrenals; pituitary; Langerhans’ islets
Online: 26 July 2022 (03:42:01 CEST)
Molecular mimicry between human and microbial/viral/parasite peptides is common and for a long time is associated with the etiology of autoimmune disorders provoked by exogenous pathogens. Increasing evidence accumulated from the past years suggests a strong correlation between the SARS-CoV-2 infection and autoimmunity. The article analyzes the immunogenic potential of the peptides shared between SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (S-protein and antigens of human endocrinocytes involved in most common autoimmune endocrinopathies. Totally the study revealed 14 pentapeptides shared by S-protein of SARS-CoV-2 and autoantigens of thyroid, pituitary, adrenal cortex and Langerhans’ islets beta-cells, 12 of them belong to immunoreactive epitopes of SARS-CoV-2. The discussion of the data links the results with clinical correlates of COVID-associated autoimmune endocrinopathies. Most common of them is an autoimmune thyroid disease, so the majority of shared pentapeptides belong to marker autoantigens of this disease. Most important in pathogenesis of severe COVID-19, according authors’ opinion, can be autoimmunity against adrenals, because their adequate response prevents from excessive systemic action of inflammatory mediators which cause cytokine storm and hemodynamic shock. The criticism of antigen mimicry concept is given with a statement that peptide sharing is not a guarantee, but just a prerequisite of autoimmunity excess provocation. The last event occurs in carriers of certain HLA haplotypes and in case when shared peptide is used in antigen processing only [1 figure, 5 tables, bibliography 38 references].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome; post-COVID syndrome; postural orthostatic tachycardia; microcirculation; immune system
Online: 20 September 2022 (03:37:00 CEST)
A Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating chronic disease of unknown aetiology under growing interest now in view of the increasingly recognized post-COVID syndrome as a new entity with similar clinical presentation. We performed the first cross-sectional study of ME/CFS in community population in Russia and then described and compared some clinical and pathophysiological characteristics of ME/CFS and post-COVID syndrome as neuroimmune disorders. Of the cohort of 76 individuals who suggested themselves suffering from ME/CFS 56 subsequently were confirmed as having CFS/ME according to ≥1 of the 4 most commonly used case definition. Of the cohort of 14 individuals with post-COVID-19 syndrome 14 met diagnostic criteria for ME/CFS. The prevalence of clinically expressed and subclinical anxiety and depression in ME / CFS and post-COVID ME/CFS did not differ significantly from that in healthy individuals. Severity of anxiety / depressive symptoms did not correlate with the severity of fatigue neigther in ME / CFS nor in post-COVID ME/CFS, but the positive correlation was found between the severity of fatigue and 20 other symptoms of ME / CFS related to the domains of “post-exertional exhaustion”, “immune dysfunction”, “sleep disturbances”, "dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system", "neurological sensory / motor disorders" and "pain syndromes". Immunological abnormalities were identified in 12/12 patients with ME / CFS according to the results of laboratory testing. The prevalence of postural orthostatic tachycardia assessed by the active standing test was 37.5% in ME / CFS and 75.0% in post-COVID ME/CFS (the latter was higher than in healthy controls, p = 0.02) There was a more pronounced increase in heart rate starting from the 6th minute of the test in post-COVID ME/CFS compared with the control group. Assessment of the functional characteristics of microcirculation by laser doppler flowmetry revealed obvious and very similar changes in ME/CFS and post-COVID ME/CFS compared to the healthy controls. The identified pattern corresponded to the hyperemic form of microcirculation disorders, usually observed in acute inflammatory processes or in deficiency of systemic vasoconstriction influences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0489.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: molecular mimicry; post-COVID-19 syndrome; SARS-CoV-2; human coronaviruses; autoimmunity; autoantigens of nervous system
Online: 7 July 2023 (10:41:49 CEST)
In post-COVID-19 syndrome, clinical presentation of the nerve fiber dysfunction plays an important role. The possibility of autoantigen cross-mimicry of coronavirus infection and the peripheral nervous system need to be investigated. The bioinformatic analysis was applied to search for possible common protein sequences located in the immunological epitopes. Among the autoantigens of the human nervous system, fibroblast growth factor receptor protein 3, myelin protein P0, myelin protein P2, sodium channel protein type 9, alpha protein subunit, plexin-D1 protein and ubiquitin-carboxyl-terminal hydrolase protein of the L1 isoenzyme were selected. The “Alignmentaj” program was created. The UniProt database, Protein Data Bank and AlphaFold databases were used. The analysis of protein sequence similarities of spike glycoproteins in human coronaviruses revealed common pentapeptides of the MERS-CoV-2 virus with the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 and myelin protein P2. Among seasonal coronaviruses, common peptide sequences were identified in HCoV-HKU-1 virus with sodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha and Plexin-D1, HCoV-OС43 with Plexin-D1, as well as HCoV-NL63 with Plexin-D1 and Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1. The data obtained make it possible to identify new potential targets for the development of autoimmune reactions that occur against the background of the activity of highly pathogenic and seasonal coronaviruses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: atherosclerosis; COVID-19; inflammation; cardiovascular system; cytokines; endothelium; lipoproteins; renin-angiotensin system; atheroma; autoimmunity; vasa vasorum.
Online: 16 December 2022 (06:32:21 CET)
The article describes how atherosclerosis and coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) may affect each other. The features of this comorbid pathogenesis at various levels (vascular, cellular and molecular) are considered. A bidirectional influence of these conditions is described: the presence of cardiovascular diseases affects different individual susceptibility to viral infection. In turn, SARS-CoV-2 can have a negative effect on the endothelium and cardiomyocytes, causing blood clotting, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and thus exacerbating the development of atherosclerosis. In addition to the established entry into cells via ACE2 принимая во внимание его влияние на, other mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry are currently under investigation, for example, through CD147. Pathogenesis of comorbidity can be determined by the influence of the virus on various links which are meaningful for atherogenesis: generation of oxidized forms of LDL, launch of a cytokine storm, damage to the endothelial glycocalyx, and mitochondrial injury. The transformation of a stable plaque into an unstable one plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis complications and can be triggered by COVID-19. The impact of SARS-CoV-2 on large vessels such as aorta is more complex than previously thought considering its impact on vasa vasorum. Current information on the mutual influence of the medicines used in the treatment of atherosclerosis and acute COVID-19 is briefly summarized
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0224.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: fibromyalgia; myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome; autoantibodies; autoimmunity
Online: 13 December 2022 (02:47:48 CET)
(1) Background: Recent studies provide some evidence for the contribution of antibody-mediated autoimmune mechanisms to the nature of fibromyalgia (FM) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Much attention was paid to the autoantibodies (AAb) targeting G protein-coupled receptors as natural components of the immune system. However, natural AAb network is much more extensive, and has not been previously investigated in these disorders; (2) Methods: The enzyme immunoassays ELI-Viscero-Test and ELI-Neuro-Test were used to determine changes in serum content of a 33 natural AAb to neural, organ-specific and non-tissue-specific autoantigens a) in 11 FM patients with comorbid ME/CFS; b) in 11 ME/CFS patients without FM; c) in 11 healthy controls. Individual autoantibody profiles and their correlation with some clinical symptoms were analyzed. (3) Results: both patients with ME/CFS and ME/CFS+FM were characterized by more frequent and pronounced deviations in the immunoreactivity to GABA-receptors than healthy controls. Although the level of other natural AAb did not differ between study groups, AAb correlation signatures were changing in patients compared to healthy controls. Both in patients and healthy controls the level of natural AAb to various neural and tissue-specific antigens correlated with the severity of fatigue, bodily pain, depression, anxiety, physical and mental-health related quality of life. Notably, that widely different correlation patterns were observed between study groups. (4) Conclusions: Findings from this pilot study provide some evidence that the homeostasis of autoimmune relationships, which are possibly a physiological part of our immune system, may break down in FM and ME/CFS. The correlation of disease-induced perturbations in individual AAb profiles with some clinical symptoms may arise from the immune system's ability to reflect qualitative and quantitative changes in antigenic composition of the body.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0118.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: male infertility; varicocele; varicocelectomy; spermatozoa; sperm antigens; antisperm autoantibodies; ejaculate; orchitis; autoimmune thyroiditis
Online: 7 October 2021 (11:40:21 CEST)
According to global data, there is a male reproductive potential decrease. Pathogenesis of male infertility often is associated with autoimmunity towards sperm antigens essential for fertilization. Antisperm autoantibodies (ASAs) have immobilizing and cytotoxic properties, impairing spermatogenesis, causing sperm agglutination, altering spermatozoa motility and acrosomal reaction, thus preventing ovum fertilization. Infertility diagnosis requires mandatory check for the ASAs. The concept of blood-testis barrier currently is re-formulated with emphasis of informational paracrine and juxtacrine effects, rather than simple anatomical separation. Aetiology of male infertility includes both autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases, but equally develops through autoimmune links of pathogenesis. Varicocele commonly leads to infertility due to testicular ischemic damage, venous stasis, local hyperthermia, and hypoandrogenism. However, varicocelectomy can alter blood-testis barrier facilitating ASAs production as well. There are contradictory data on the role of ASAs in pathogenesis of varicocele-related infertility. Infection and inflammation both promote ASAs production due to “danger concept” mechanisms and because of antigen mimicry. Systemic pro-autoimmune influences like hyperprolactinemia, hypoandrogenism and hypothyroidism also facilitate ASAs production. Diagnostic value of various ASAs was not yet clearly attributed, and their cut-levels not agreed neither in sera nor in ejaculate. The assessment of the autoimmunity role in pathogenesis of male infertility is ambiguous.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: autoimmune diseases; antinuclear antibodies; antinuclear factor; functional autoantibodies; natural autoantibodies; physiological autoimmunity
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:01:32 CET)
Incidence of autoimmune diseases increases. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) testing is a critical tool for their diagnosis. However, ANA prevalence in health increased over last decades, especially among young people. ANA in health occur in low concentrations, with prevalence up to 50% in some populations, which demands a cutoff revision. The review deals with origin and probable physiological or compensatory function of ANA in health, according to the concept of immunological clearance, theory of autoimmune regulation of cell functions and the concept of functional autoantibodies. Considering ANA titers ≤1:320 as a serological marker of autoimmune diseases seems inappropriate. The role of anti-DFS70/LEDGFp75 autoantibodies is highlighted as possible anti-risk biomarker for autoimmune rheumatic disorders. ANA prevalence in health is different in various regions due to several underlying causes discussed in the review, all influencing in additive combinations according to the concept of the mosaic of autoimmunity. Not only titer, but the HEp-2 IFA staining patterns, like AC-2, is also important. Accepting autoantibodies as a kind of bioregulators, not only upper, but also lower borders of their normal range should be determined. Not only their excess, but also lack of them or “autoimmunodeficiency” could be a reason of disorders.