ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0246.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: biopsy; cancer diagnosis; predictive models; neural network; optimization
Online: 15 November 2021 (10:40:52 CET)
One of the most dangerous diseases that threaten people is Cancer. Cancer if diagnosed in earlier stages can be eradicated with its life threatening consequences. In addition, accuracy in prediction plays a major role. Hence, developing a reliable model that contributes much towards the medical community in early diagnosis of Biopsy images with perfect accuracy come to the scenario. The article aims towards development of better predictive models using multi-variate data and high-resolution diagnostic tools in clinical cancer research. This paper proposes the social spider optimization (SSO) algorithm tuned neural network to classify microscopic biopsy images of cancer. The significance of the proposed model relies on the effective tuning of the weights of the NN classifier by the SSO algorithm. The performance of the proposed strategy is analysed with the performance metrics, such as accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and MCC measures, and are attained to be 95.9181%, 94.2515%, 97.125%, and 97.68% respectively, which shows the effectiveness of the proposed method in effective cancer disease diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0398.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Aspergillus giganteus; Aspergillosis; Antagonism; Sarcin; ADMET; GC-MS
Online: 22 November 2021 (13:56:36 CET)
Fungal infections are more predominant in agricultural and clinical fields. Aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus leads to respiratory failure in patients along with various illnesses. Due to the limitation of antifungal therapy and antifungal drugs, there is an emergence to develop efficient antifungal compounds from natural sources to cure and prevent fungal infections. The present study deals with the investigation of the mechanism of active compounds from our candidate agonist Aspergillus giganteus for aspergillosis. The integrity of treated Aspergillus fumigatus cell membrane and nuclear membrane was analyzed by determining the release of cellular materials. The antagonistic potential of antifungal compounds on the pathogen was confirmed by SEM analysis. The effective concentration of antifungal compounds (AFCs) was found to be 250µg/ml. The GC-MS profiling has revealed the bioactive metabolites responsible for the antagonistic nature of Aspergillus giganteus. The bioavailability and toxicological properties of pathogenesis related proteins have proved the efficiency of pharmacokinetic properties of selected compounds. Interaction of sarcin, thionin, chitinase and its derivatives from Aspergillus giganteus with the virulence proteins of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase, N-myristoyl transferase and Chitinase have proved the druggable nature of the antifungal compounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0322.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: binding agent; disintegrating agent; natural polymer; mucilage; Coccinia grandis
Online: 18 November 2021 (11:14:32 CET)
Mucilage from Coccinia grandis was extracted, isolated by maceration technique and precipitated, accordingly. The mucilage was evaluated for its physicochemical, binding, and disintegrant properties in tablets using paracetamol as a model drug. The crucial physicochemical properties such as flow properties, solubility, swelling index, loss on drying, viscosity, pH, microbial load, cytotoxicity were evaluated and the compatibility was analysed using sophisticated instrumental methods (TGA, DTA, DSC, and FTIR). The binding properties of the mucilage were used at three different concentrations and compared with starch and PVP as standard binders. The disintegrant properties of mucilage were used at two different concentrations and compared with standard disintegrants MCCP, SSG, and CCS. The wet granulation technique was used for the preparation of granules and was evaluated for the flow properties. The tablets were punched and evaluated for their hardness, friability, assay, disintegration time, in vitro dissolution profiles. In vitro cytotoxicity study of the mucilage was performed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell line using cytotoxic assay by MTT method. The outcome of the study indicated that the mucilage had good performance when compared with starch and PVP. Further, the mucilage acts as a good disintegrant than MCCP, SSG and CCS to paracetamol tablets. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation results demonstrated that the mucilage is non-cytotoxic to human cells and is safe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: pregnant mothers, physical activity; maternal wellbeing; antenatal mothers; newborn outcomes; m-health; low birth weight; small for gestation; gestation age; hemoglobin
Online: 1 November 2021 (17:50:14 CET)
Maternal and child nutrition has been a critical component of health, sustainable development, and progress in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). While a decrement in maternal mortality is an important indicator, simply surviving pregnancy and childbirth does not imply better maternal health. One of the fundamental obligations of nations under international human rights law is to enable mothers and teenage girls to endure pregnancy and delivery as an aspect of their enjoyment of reproductive and sexual health and rights and live a dignified life. The aim of this study was to discover the correlation between the Maternal Observation and Motivation (MOM) program and m-Health support for maternal and newborn health. A Comparative study was done among 109 pregnant mothers (study group-94; control group-102 mothers) with not less than 20 weeks of gestation. Maternal outcomes such as Hb, weight gain and newborn results like birth weight and crown- heel length was obtained on the baseline, 28 and 36 weeks of gestation. Other secondary data collected were abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight, major congenital malformations, twin or triplet pregnancies, physical activity and maternal wellbeing. The MOM intervention included initial face to face education, three in-person visits and eight virtual health coaching by WhatsApp. The baseline data on Hb of the mothers show that 31(32.98%) vs 27(28.72%) of the study and control group had anaemia, which improved to 27.66% and 14.98% among study group mothers at 28 and 36 weeks of gestation (p<0.001). The weight gain (p< 0.001), level of physical activity (p< 0.001), and maternal wellbeing (p< 0.01) also had significant differences after the Intervention. Even after controlling for potentially confounding variables, the maternal food practices regression model revealed that birth weight was directly correlated with consumption of milk (p 0.001), fruits (p 0.01), and green vegetables (p 0.05).As per the physical activity and maternal wellbeing regression model, the birth weight and crown heel length were strongly related with the physical activity and maternal wellbeing of mothers at 36 weeks of gestation (p <0.05). Combining the MOM intervention with standard antenatal care is a safe and effective way to improve maternal welfare while upholding pregnant mothers' human rights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Blood Pressure; Rope Exercise; physical activity; Lifestyle Modification; Adolescents; BMI; Hypertension; Cardiovascular risk factors; Academic Performance
Online: 18 October 2021 (10:21:34 CEST)
There are evidences of shared biological mechanisms between obesity and hypertension during childhood in the adulthood, and loads of research literatures have proven that, it will cost the economies and health of nations profoundly if neglected. The Prevention and early diagnosis of cardiovascular risk factors such as overweight and hypertension is an essential strategy for control, effective treatment and prevention of its’ complications. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of school based Exercise and Life style Motivation Intervention (SEAL-MI) on adolescent's cardiovascular risk factors and academic performance. An experimental study was conducted among 1005 adolescents - 520 and 485 adolescents were randomly selected for control and study group, respectively. Demographic details and the data related to dietary habits, physical activity and sleep quality were collected by a structured interview questionnaire. The study group adolescents were given the SEAL-MI for six months which includes a school based rope exercise for 45 minutes per day for 5 days a week and a motivation intervention related to dietary habits, physical activity and sleep. Post-test 1 and 2 were done after 3 and 6 months of intervention. The prevalence of overweight among adolescents was 28.73% and prehypertension was 9.26%. Among overweight adolescents, the prevalence of prehypertension was found to be very high (32.25%). In post intervention, there was a significant reduction in weight, BP (p=0.000) and improvement in dietary habits, physical activity, sleep (p=0.000) and academic performance. A significant positive correlation was found between BMI and SBP (p=0.000) and BMI and academic performance (p=0.003). The linear regression analyses revealed that the gender (ß: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.81), age (ß: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.46), family income (ß: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.5), residence (ß: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.27) and type of family (ß: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.02) had the strongest correlate with the BMI of the adolescents. Also, Mother’s education Mother’s education (ß: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.59) had the strongest correlate with the SBP of the adolescents. In contrast, the DBP was negatively persuaded by age (ß: -0.36, 95% CI: 1.54, 0.29) and gender (ß: -0.26, 95% CI: 1.34, 0.12) of the adolescents. Regular practice of rope exercise and lifestyle modification such as diet, physical activity and sleep quality among adolescents prevent and control childhood CVD risk factors like overweight, hypertension. The SEAL-MI may lead to age appropriate development of adolescents and improves their academic performance and quality of life. Giving importance to the adolescents from urban habitat, from affluent nuclear family and catching them young will bring significant change in the disease burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Diabetic wound; Achyranthes aspera; wound healing; burn wound; cotton; pellet granuloma; carrageenan-induced paw edema; Acute toxicity
Online: 27 October 2021 (14:16:41 CEST)
Introduction: Wound healing is a multifaceted biological process, and diabetic wounds add more complexity to it. In diabetic wounds, the combination of chloroform fractions of Achyranthes aspera L. (A.aspera) leaves with β-Glucans has not been investigated. The additive effect of these two (A.aspera + β-Glucans) would benefit the inflammatory phase of diabetic wounds, as improper treatment will lead to chronic injuries. Therefore, the goal of this research work was to assess the in-vivo wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects of a combination of chloroform fractions of A.aspera leaves and β-Glucans in a variety of wound models in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical analyses of A.aspera were conducted to identify various phytoconstituents in the test extract. Acute and sub-acute dermal toxicity tests of A.aspera were carried out on mice and rats, respectively, to see whether there were any abnormalities. Excision and incision wound models, cotton pellet-induced granuloma models, rat paw edema and burn wounds were used to test wound healing and anti-inflammatory actions. To induce diabetes, streptozotocin (STZ) was administered intraperitoneally at a dosage of 65 mg/kg (i.p.). A.aspera (10% w/w) and β-Glucans (2% w/w) ointments were tested separately and in combination for wound healing activities. Silver sulfadiazine (1 % w/w) ointment was used to treat the positive control groups. Excision wound model rats that had been treated with basic ointment were used as negative controls, as were incision wound model rats that had not been treated. A.aspera (400 mg/kg, po) and β-Glucans (30 mg/kg, po) were tested separately and in combination for anti-inflammatory efficacy. Positive control groups were given indomethacin (10 mg/kg, po) for cotton pellet-induced granuloma and rat paw oedema models. Negative controls for both anti-inflammatory activity models were provided 2% Tween 80. The groups were made up of six rats, and the treatments were given topically and orally to assess wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects. The levels of hydroxyproline and hexosamine and the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) in the granulation tissue were measured in excision wound model. Healed excision wound skin was examined histopathologically. Results: The A.aspera and β-Glucans combination resulted in a significant percentage of wound contraction and a shorter epithelialization time (P<0.01). The combination was found to be the most effective, with the highest percentage of edema reduction (55 %; p<0.01). The combination also exhibited favourable hydroxylamine, hexosamine and anti-oxidant profiles supported by histopathology data. Conclusion: This research showed that the immunomodulatory effect of β-Glucans had significantly enhanced the wound healing, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant potential of A.aspera in diabetic wounds.