ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2011.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Aronia melanocarpa; type 2 diabetes; dietary supplement; antioxidants; polyphenols; anthocyanins; randomized controlled trial
Online: 31 October 2023 (07:08:58 CET)
Aronia berries contain antioxidants that may have health promoting properties e.g., demonstrated positive effects on hypertension and dyslipidemia. There is a close link between cardiovascular diseases and hypertension and dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular events are the leading cause of death among subjects with T2D. Thus, we investigated the effect of 8 weeks supplementation with fermented aronia extract (FAE), non-fermented aronia extract (AE) and placebo on cardiovascular risk factors. The extracts were incorporated into snack bars containing 34 g (37%) aronia extract, or 17 g (21%) wheat bran for placebo, as well as raisins and coconut oil. The study was randomized and blinded with a triple-cross-over design. We examined the effects of aronia extracts on blood pressure, adiponectin and high-sensitive C-reactive protein and found no effects. After supplementation with placebo, there were significantly higher total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol, with the placebo group showing significantly higher increases in total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol than the FAE group. Furthermore, we observed an increase in HDL-cholesterol in the AE group and an increase in triglyceride in the FAE group. Thus, we assume that raisins may have increased the participants’ cholesterol levels, however, with both AE and FAE having the potential to prevent this increase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0164.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: coffee; dietary supplements; metabolic syndrome X; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; adiponectin; hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Online: 27 October 2017 (02:32:43 CEST)
Since coffee has been shown to influence positively the metabolism of subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS), we aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of a coffee-based supplement on different features of diet-induced MetS. 24 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control or nutraceuticals groups to receive a high-fat/high fructose diet with or without a mixture of caffeic acid (30 mg/day), trigonelline (20 mg/day), and cafestol (1 mg/day) for 12 weeks. An additional 11 rats were assigned to an acute crossover study. In the chronic experiment, nutraceuticals did not alter body weight or glycemic control but improved fed hyperinsulinemia and HOMA-IR, and plasma adiponectin levels. The impact of nutraceuticals on post-prandial glycemia tended to be more pronounced after acute administration than at the end of the chronic study. Circulating and intrahepatocellular alanine transaminase activity, assessed by hyperpolarized-13C NMR spectroscopy, were reduced by coffee nutraceuticals at endpoint. There was also a tendency towards lower liver triglyceride content and histological steatosis score in the intervention group. In conclusion, a mixture of coffee nutraceuticals improved insulin sensitivity and exhibited hepatoprotective effects in a rat model of MetS. Higher dosages with or without caffeine deserve to be studied in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0365.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: coffee; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome X; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Carbon-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy; phytotherapy
Online: 21 August 2018 (04:38:00 CEST)
Literature is inconsistent as to how coffee affects the features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), and which bioactive compounds are responsible for its metabolic effects. We aimed to compare the in-vivo effects of unfiltered coffee with a selected mixture of its compounds on diet-induced MetS. 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat (35% W/W) food plus 20% W/W fructose in drinking water for 14 weeks, and were randomized into three groups: control, coffee, or nutraceuticals (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, and trigonelline). Coffee or nutraceuticals were provided in drinking water in a dosage equal to 4 cups/day in a human. Compared to the controls, only coffee supplementation decreased total food intake, weight gain, and estimated average plasma glucose. Surrogate measures of insulin resistance (fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and oral glucose tolerance) were improved at endpoint in the coffee group. Circulating triglyceride levels were also reduced by coffee. Histopathological and quantitative measurements indicated lower grades of liver steatosis after long-term coffee consumption. In conclusion, a combination of phenolic acids and trigonelline was not as effective as coffee per se in improving the components of the MetS. This points to the role of other coffee chemicals and a potential synergism between compounds.