ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; gender role; sex differences
Online: 4 August 2021 (15:30:46 CEST)
Background: from December 2019 and the spreading of syndemics, a lot of medical centers reg-istered data about their patients. In Italy, the most relevant quantity of patients was hospitalized in internal medicine wards. Methods: In this observational, retrospective cross-sectional study, all data of the COVID-19 patients, admitted Latio hospitals, from March 01 to December 31, 2020, were collected and their Epidemiological data, demographics, signs and symptoms on admission, comorbidities, laboratory findings, chest radiography and CT findings, treatment received and mortality rate were analyzed by gender to find any differences of gravity of disease. Clinician details were registered on database (one for every hospital). Cost analysis was performed by length of stay and antiviral drugs use, using point of view of Italian Healthcare System. Results: 2256 patients with mean age of 71.01 ± 28.02 years were included. For men, frequency of hyper-tension, COPD, use of oxygen therapy, Tocilizumab were significantly higher and epidemiolog-ical link was related to rehabilitation ward and community. The gender difference about hospi-talization was one day more for man. No strong significant difference by gender in the death rate was observed. Considering antiviral drugs and hospitalization, a man costs €1000 more than woman. Conclusions: In male patients, hypertension and COPD were observed more frequently and the epidemiological link was related to rehabilitation ward and community. In female sub-jects, the epidemiological link was related to Hospital and we observed significantly higher atypical chest-X ray. Tocilizumab, oxygen therapy and antiviral drugs were prescribed more in male subjects. No differences by gender we report in other treatments and outcomes. Future studies should be analyzed to get a more comprehensive understanding of COVID-19 by gender.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Polypharmacy management, COVID -19, Gender medicine, economic perspective
Online: 7 September 2022 (02:29:58 CEST)
Background: Covid-19 patients with any pre-existing cardio-vascular disease (CVD) are at highest risk for viral infection and for developing of severe disease. Pathophysiological mechanism is characterized by the viral link to Angioten-sin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the involvement of the endothelial system with the release of cytokines and direct damage on myocardium, micro throm-bosis, and alterations of oxygen diffusion. Aim of the study is to analyze clinical course, treatment and outcome in patients (gender stratified) with pre-existing CVD. Methods: Out of the 1299 (700 M/599 F) patients admitted to Internal Medicine COVID Unit of “Castelli Hospital”, Lazio, Italy, from 01/01/2021 to 31/12/2021, 278 patients (167 M/111 F), mean age 76 (76 M/ 75 F) had previous CVD. Demographic characteristics, length of the stay (LOS) and oxygen therapy were evaluated. Results: Most common CVD pathologies were Hearth Failure (HF): 131 (72 M/59 F), Atrial Fibrillation (AF): 45 (25 M/20 F), Myocardial Infarction (MI): 26 (19 M/7 F) and associations among them. 100% of CVD COVID patients under-went Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) and were treated with more than 5 drugs. HF was linked with increased LOS (23 days) compared to AF (21 days), MI (18 days) and no CVD (16 days). Overall mean LOS was 16,5 days. 21,4% of total pa-tients had CVD. Conclusions: Timely identification and evaluation of patients with pre-existing CVD are fundamental for adequate treatment based on gender, severity and state of illness and for risk reduction. Keywords: polypharmacy, gender medicine; COVID 19; Sars CoV 2; cardiovas-cular disease.