ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0491.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Media campaign; Disease awareness; Mathematical model; Basic reproduction number (R0); Global stability; Optimal control
Online: 28 February 2023 (02:33:10 CET)
Malaria is a critical fevered illness caused by Plasmodium parasites transmitted among people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Public awareness about the disease is important for the control of disease. This article proposes a mathematical model to study the dynamics of malaria disease transmission with the influence of awareness-based control interventions. We found two equilibria of the model, namely the disease-free and endemic equilibrium. Disease-free equilibrium is stable globally if basic reproduction number (R0) is less than unity (R0<1). Some basic mathematical properties of the proposed model, such as nonnegativity and boundedness of solutions, the feasibility of the equilibrium points and their stability properties, have been studied. Finally, we adopted optimal control to minimize the cost of disease control and solve the problem by formulating Hamiltonian functional. The optimal use of insecticides for controlling the mosquito population is determined. Numerical simulations have been provided for the confirmation of the analytical results. We conclude that media awareness with optimal control approach is best for cost-effective malaria disease management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2216.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Mathematical modeling; Bifurcation analysis; Global stability; Direction of Hopf bifurcation; Numerical simulations
Online: 31 May 2023 (10:42:32 CEST)
The main objective of this study is to find out the influence of cooperation and intra-specific competition in escaping predation through refuge of the prey population and the effect of the two intra-specific interactions on the dynamics of prey-predator systems. For this purposes, two mathematical models with Holling type-II functional response function have been proposed and analyzed. The first model includes cooperation among prey populations whereas the second one incorporates intra-specific competition. Existence conditions and stability of different equilibrium points of both models have been carried out for the qualitative behaviour of the systems. Refuge through intra-specific competition has a stabilizing role, whereas cooperation has a destabilizing role on the system dynamics. Periodic oscillations are observed in both the systems through Hopf bifurcation. From the analytical and numerical findings, we conclude that intra-specific competition affects the prey population and continuously checks the refuge class under a critical value, and thus it never becomes too large to cause predator extinction due to food scarcity. Conversely, cooperation leads maximum individuals to escape predation through the refuge so that predators will suffer from low predation success.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0090.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: epithelial cell; antibody response; basic reproduction number; transcritical bifurcation; impulsive control; drug holidays
Online: 6 September 2022 (10:25:07 CEST)
Mathematical modeling is crucial in investigating the pandemic of the ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The primary target area of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is epithelial cells in the human lower repertory track. During this viral infection, infected cells can initiate innate and adaptive immune responses to viral infection. Immune response in COVID -19 infection can lead to longer recovery time and more severe secondary complications. We formulate a target cell limited mathematical model by incorporating a saturation term for SARS-CoV-2 infected epithelial cell loss reliant on infected cell levels. Forward and backward bifurcation between disease-free and endemic equilibrium points has been analyzed. Global stability of both disease-free and endemic equilibrium is provided. We have seen that the disease-free equilibrium is globally stable for $R_0<1$, and endemic equilibrium exists and is globally stable for $R_0>1$. Impulsive application of drug dosing has been applied for the treatment of covid-19 patients. Also, the dynamics of the impulsive system are discussed when a patient takes drug holidays. The numerical simulations are performed in support of our analytical findings and for the qualitative analysis of the system's dynamics with and without impulse drug dosing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0352.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Mathematical model; Basic reproduction number; Stability theory; Forward bifurcation; Minimum principle; Numerical simulations
Online: 5 May 2023 (10:40:07 CEST)
Infectious diseases continue to be a significant threat to human health and civilization, and finding effective methods to combat them is crucial. In this research, we investigate the impact of awareness campaigns and optimal control techniques on infectious diseases without proper vaccines. Specifically, we develop an SIRS type mathematical model that incorporates awareness campaigns through media and treatment for disease transmission dynamics and control. The model displays two equilibria, a disease-free equilibrium and an endemic equilibrium, and exhibits Hopf bifurcation when the bifurcation parameter exceeds its critical value, causing a switch in the stability of the system. We also propose an optimal control problem that minimizes the cost of control measures while achieving a desired level of disease control. By applying the minimum principle to the optimal control problem, we obtain analytical and numerical results that show how the infection rate of the disease affects the stability of the system and how awareness campaigns and treatment can maintain system stability. This study highlights the importance of awareness campaigns in controlling infectious diseases and demonstrates the effectiveness of optimal control theory in achieving disease control with minimal cost.