Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

# Hopf Bifurcation Analysis and Optimal Control of an Infectious Disease with Awareness Campaign and Treatment

Version 1 : Received: 4 May 2023 / Approved: 5 May 2023 / Online: 5 May 2023 (10:40:07 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Al Basir, F.; Rajak, B.; Rahman, B.; Hattaf, K. Hopf Bifurcation Analysis and Optimal Control of an Infectious Disease with Awareness Campaign and Treatment. Axioms 2023, 12, 608. Al Basir, F.; Rajak, B.; Rahman, B.; Hattaf, K. Hopf Bifurcation Analysis and Optimal Control of an Infectious Disease with Awareness Campaign and Treatment. Axioms 2023, 12, 608.

## Abstract

Infectious diseases continue to be a significant threat to human health and civilization, and finding effective methods to combat them is crucial. In this research, we investigate the impact of awareness campaigns and optimal control techniques on infectious diseases without proper vaccines. Specifically, we develop an SIRS type mathematical model that incorporates awareness campaigns through media and treatment for disease transmission dynamics and control. The model displays two equilibria, a disease-free equilibrium and an endemic equilibrium, and exhibits Hopf bifurcation when the bifurcation parameter exceeds its critical value, causing a switch in the stability of the system. We also propose an optimal control problem that minimizes the cost of control measures while achieving a desired level of disease control. By applying the minimum principle to the optimal control problem, we obtain analytical and numerical results that show how the infection rate of the disease affects the stability of the system and how awareness campaigns and treatment can maintain system stability. This study highlights the importance of awareness campaigns in controlling infectious diseases and demonstrates the effectiveness of optimal control theory in achieving disease control with minimal cost.

## Keywords

Mathematical model; Basic reproduction number; Stability theory; Forward bifurcation; Minimum principle; Numerical simulations

## Subject

Computer Science and Mathematics, Mathematical and Computational Biology