HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0151.v2
Online: 22 April 2020 (09:46:54 CEST)
Human respiratory beta coronavirus are emerging causes for Public Health Emergencies of International Concern (PHEIC). SARS-CoV2 is circulating worldwide since November 2019. We review here the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in COVID-19, and data supporting the role for dysregulation of the RAS counterregulatory axis due to binding of SARS-CoV2 S protein to ACE2 receptor. Since this counterregulatory axis provides benefits not only on the cardiovascular front but also in acute lung injury, we speculate on potential use of ACE inhibitors and AT1R blockers in critically ill COVID-19 patients, and report current evidences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0467.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Cell Proliferation; EMT; Mitochondrial Dysfunction; nAChR; Nicotine; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 18 December 2020 (13:24:14 CET)
(1) Background: Nicotine is implicated in the SARS-COV-2 infection through activation of the α7-nAChR and over-expression of ACE2. Our objective is to clarify the role of nicotine in SARS-CoV-2 infection exploring its molecular and cellular activity. (2) Methods: HBEpC or si-mRNA-α7-HBEpC were treated for 1, 48 h or continuously with 10-7 M Nicotine, a concentration mimicking human exposure to a cigarette. Cell viability and proliferation were evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion and cell counting, migration by cell migration assay, senescence by SA-beta-Gal activity, and anchorage-independent growth by cloning in soft agar. Expression of Ki67, p53/phospho-p53, VEGF, EGFR/pEGFR, phospho-p38, intracellular Ca+2, ATP and EMT were evaluated by ELISA and/or western blotting. (3) Results: Nicotine induced through α7-nAChR (i) increase in cell viability (ii) cell proliferation; (iii) Ki67 over-expression, (iv) phospho-p38 up-regulation (v) EGFR/pEGFR over-expression; (vi) increase in basal Ca+2 concentration, (vii) reduction of ATP production; (viii) decreased level of p53/phospho-p53, (ix) delayed senescence, (x) VEGF increase, (xi) EMT and consequent (xii) enhanced migration, and (xiii) ability to grow independently of the substrate. (4) Conclusions: Based on our results and on evidence showing that Nicotine potentiates viral infection it is likely that Nicotine is involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0526.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 virus; complete genome sequencing; COVID-19 RT-PCR testing; Spike protein; vi-ral variants
Online: 21 May 2021 (15:12:17 CEST)
A growing number of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants is being identified worldwide, potentially impacting the effectiveness of current vaccines. We report the data obtained in several Italian regions involved in the SARS-CoV-2 variant monitoring from the beginning of the epidemic and spanning the period from October 2020 to March 2021.