ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2032.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; post-COVID-19; pulmonary manifestations; spirometry; chest tomography.
Online: 28 July 2023 (12:48:47 CEST)
COVID-19 generated a scenario for global health with multiple systemic impairments. This retrospective study evaluated the clinical, radiological, and pulmonary functional evolution in 302 post-COVID-19 patients. Regarding post-COVID-19 pulmonary symptoms, dry cough, dyspnea, and chest pain were the most frequent. Of the associated comorbidities, asthma was more frequent (23.5%). Chest Tomography (CT) initially showed a mean pulmonary involvement of 69.7%, and the evaluation in the subsequent months showed an improvement in the evolutionary image, and with less than six months post-pathology, there was a commitment of 37 .7%, from six to twelve months, 20% and after 12 months, 9.9%. And as for most of the sample, 50.3% of the patients presented CT normalization in less than six months after infection, 23% normalized between six and twelve months, and 5.2% normalized the images after twelve months, with one remaining. Percentage of 17.3% who maintained post-COVID-19 pulmonary residual sequelae. Regarding spirometry, in less than six months after the pathology, 59.3% of the patients already showed a regular exam; 12.3% normalized their function within six to twelve months, and 6.3% concluded a normal exam after twelve months of post-pathology evaluation. Only 3.6% of the patients still showed some alteration in this period.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2260.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: epicatechin; skeletal muscle; muscular atrophy; catechins; myogenic regulatory factors
Online: 30 June 2023 (14:49:48 CEST)
Epicatechin has been described as a polyphenol compound that promotes skeletal muscle restructuring, by expressing muscle regulation factors, activation of satellite cells and modulation of the main pathways associated with catabolism. However, the literature shows contrasting results of therapeutic effects and treatment protocols. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to analyze the current literature addressing the molecular mechanism and clinical protocol of epicatechin on skeletal muscular atrophy in humans and animals. A search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. The qualitative analysis showed a prevalence of the inhibitory action of epicatechin in myostatin expression and atrogenes FOXO, MAFbx and MuRF1. Epicatechin showed positive effects on increased follistatin and on the activation of the myogenic regulatory factors (Myf5, MyoD and myogenin). In addition, the studies evidenced the impact of epicatechin on the mitochondrias' biosynthesis in muscle fibers, activation of the signaling pathway of AKT/mTOR protein synthesis, and improvement of skeletal musculature performance, particularly when associated with physical training. Epicatechin showed promising clinical applicability through beneficial results under conditions that negatively affect the skeletal musculature. However, there is no protocol standardization allowing to draw more specific conclusions on its therapeutic use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0831.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus; body fat; lean mass; glycated hemoglobin; apolipoprotein.
Online: 10 August 2023 (08:22:07 CEST)
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to assess glycemic control in Type 1 diabetes (DM1) patients. Apolipoproteins play an essential role in DM1 pathophysiology and may be associated with complications, as well as HbA1c. This cross-sectional observational study consisting of 81 children and adolescents of both sexes diagnosed with DM1 investigated the relationship between body fat distribution and lean mass with HbA1C and apolipoprotein values analyzing biochemical and body composition measurements. Shapiro-Wilk test with Lilliefors correction, non-parametric Mann-Whitney test, and others were used with a significance level of 5%. The sample had a diagnosis time of 4.32 years and high blood glucose levels (mean 178.19 mg/dL) and HbA1c (mean 8.57%). Subjects also had a moderate level of adiposity, as indicated by arm and thigh fat areas. The study also found significant differences in the distribution of patients concerning levels of apolipoproteins A and B, with a smaller proportion of patients having undesirable levels. Finally, the study found a significant difference in the distribution of patients with estimated cardiovascular risk based on the ApoB/ApoA-1 ratio. Conclusively, visceral fat in children and adolescents with DM1 may increase the risk of DM1 long-term complications owing to its association with elevated HbA1C and apolipoprotein values.