ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0393.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: EP element; *-DMP element; generalized core-EP inverse; additive property; generalized core-EP order; Banach algebra.
Online: 9 October 2023 (08:09:37 CEST)
We introduce a new generalized inverse (i.e., generalized EP element) which is a natural generalization of EP and *-DMP elements in a Banach *-algebra. We present polar-like characterizations of generalized EP elements. The necessary and sufficient conditions under which the sum of two generalized EP elements is a generalized EP element are investigated. Finally, the generalized core-EP orders for generalized EP elements are characterized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0032.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: twisted Wang transform; shape factor; EP curve; reinsurance; numerical optimization
Online: 4 July 2022 (05:08:29 CEST)
The twisted Wang transform distribution family, defined as the composition of parameter shifted inverse CDF function with an original CDF function, is found to be most suitable for matching low shape factor distributions, characterizing hard to fit or to simulate reinsurance portfolio losses for some perils from our previous study. Among them, the best form for matching a hard-to-fit empirical loss distribution for a specific peril, is the Exponential Fractional Extra Power 0 Distribution in (0,1) with CDF:.The simplest yet still a good form of this family is the Transformed Hyperbolic Tangent Distribution with CDF:,which has analytical formulas for the moments. The twisted Wang transform distribution family is compared and confirmed to be superior to all other well-known distribution families through extensive numerical optimization practice, distribution forms guesses, and computer-aided exploration experiments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0531.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: astrocyte; gap junction coupling; connexin 43; connexin 30; hippocampus, epilepsy; ep-ileptogenesis; temporal lobe epilepsy
Online: 30 January 2023 (02:07:39 CET)
The gap junction-coupled astroglial network plays a central role in the regulation of neuronal activity and synchronization, but its involvement in the pathogenesis of neuronal diseases is not yet understood. Here we present the current state of knowledge about the impact of impaired glial coupling in the development and progression of epilepsy and discuss whether astrocytes represent alternative therapeutic targets. We focus mainly on temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), which is the most common form of epilepsy in adults, characterized by high therapy resistance. Functional data from TLE patients and corresponding experimental models point to a complete loss of astrocytic coupling, but preservation of the gap junction forming proteins connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin30 (Cx30) in hippocampal sclerosis. Several studies further indicate that astrocyte uncoupling represents a causal event in the initiation of TLE, as it occurs very early in epileptogenesis, clearly preceding dysfunctional changes in neurons. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of gap junction channels in epilepsy and to develop safe and effective therapeutic strategies targeting astrocytes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0219.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: generalized core-EP inverse; generalized group inverse; weighted generalized Drazin inverse; weighted weak group inverse; Banach *-algebra
Online: 4 October 2023 (07:21:50 CEST)
In this paper, we introduce the notion of weighted generalized group inverse in a Banach algebra with proper involution. This is a natural generalization of weighted weak group inverse for a complex matrix and Hilbert space operator. We present several characterizations and representations of this generalized inverse. In addition, a new partial order on elements in a Banach *-algebra is investigated by using the weighted generalized group inverse and some known results are thus generalized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1393.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: epoxy resin; carboxy-terminated liquid nitrile butadiene rubber; nano-SiO2; toughening; GF/EP laminate composites; interlaminar properties
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:33:31 CEST)
Poor interlaminar fracture toughness has been a major issue in glass fiber-reinforced epoxy resin (GF/EP) laminate composites. In this paper, soft carboxy-terminated liquid nitrile (CTBN) rubber particles and rigid nano-SiO2 are used to toughen the epoxy resin (EP) matrix to improve the interlayer properties of GF/EP laminate composites. The effects of adding two toughening agents on the mechanical and interlayer properties of GF/EP laminates were studied. The results showed that adding the two kinds of particles improved the mechanical properties of the epoxy matrix. When the additional amount of flexible CTBN rubber particles was 8wt%, and the rigid nano SiO2 was 0.5wt%, the fracture toughness of the matrix resin was increased by 215.8%, and the tensile strength was only decreased by 2.3% compared with the pure epoxy resin. On this basis, the effects of two kinds of particles on the interlayer properties of GF/EP composites were studied. Compared with the unmodified GF/EP laminates, the interlayer shear strength and mode Ⅰ interlayer fracture toughness is significantly improved by toughening agent, and the energy release rate GIC of interlayer shear strength and interlayer fracture toughness is increased by 109.2%, and 86.8%, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0331.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: equivalence-principle; Einstein-Lift; EP; formal binary logic; inhomogenious gravity- field; acceleration- field; radial-field; tidal-forces
Online: 25 February 2022 (09:46:25 CET)
Mass plays a strange multiple role in classical physics. This results in a difference between gravity and all other forces - a difference that stood at the beginning of Einstein's development of his general theory of relativity. The equivalence principle (EP) deals with homogenious gravitational fields, which, in fact, don‘t exist in nature. There is only an approximation for this field in Einstein-Lift possible for local situations. Nevertheless this EP can be true, because in classical formal binary logic there can be formulated a true conclusion from a wrong premise or assumption.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: COX-2; breast cancer; PGE2; EP receptors; stem-like cells; metastasis; angiogenesis; lymphangiogenesis; MicroRNAs; triple negative breast cancer
Online: 13 February 2018 (09:16:54 CET)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, also called seven-transmembrane or heptahelical receptors) are a superfamily of cell surface receptor proteins that bind to many extracellular ligands and transmit signals to an intracellular guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein). When a ligand binds, the receptor activates the attached G-protein by causing the exchange of Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) for guanosine diphosphate (GDP). They play a major role in many physiological functions as well as in the pathology of many diseases including cancer progression and metastasis. Only a few GPCR members have been exploited as targets for developing drugs with therapeutic benefit in cancer. Present review deals with the Prostaglandin E receptor EP4, a member of the EP family of GPCR, as a promising newer therapeutic target for treating breast cancer. We show that aberrant over-expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, an inflammation-associated enzyme, occurring in 40-50% of breast cancer patients leads to tumor progression and metastasis due to multiple cellular events resulting from an increased prostaglandin (PG) E2 production in the tumor milieu. They include inactivation of host anti-tumor immune (NK and T) cells, increased immuno-suppressor function of tumor-associated macrophages, promotion of tumor cell migration, invasiveness and tumor-associated angiogenesis (due to upregulation of VEGF-A), lymphangiogenesis (due to upregulation of VEGF-C/D) and a stimulation of stem-like cell (SLC) phenotype in cancer cells. All these events were primarily mediated by activation of the PGE receptor EP4 on tumor or host cells. We show that selective EP4 antagonists (EP4A) could mitigate all these events tested with cells in vitro as well as in vivo in syngeneic COX-2 expressing mammary cancer bearing mice or immune-deficient mice bearing COX-2 over-expressing human breast cancer xenografts. We suggest that EP4A can avoid thrombo-embolic side effects of long term use of COX-2 inhibitors by sparing cardio-protective roles of PGI2 via IP receptor activation or PGE2 via EP3 receptor activation. Furthermore, we identified two COX-2/EP4 induced oncogenic and SLC-stimulating microRNAs - miR526b and miR655, one of which (miR655) appears to be a potential blood biomarker in breast cancer patients, for monitoring SLC-ablative therapies such as with EP4A. We suggest that EP4A will likely produce the highest benefit in aggressive breast cancers such as COX-2 expressing triple-negative breast cancers, when combined with other newer agents such as PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors.