REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0604.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Parkinson's disease; Emotion; Facial Masking; Dysarthria; Stigma; Dehumanization; Loneliness
Online: 25 July 2020 (11:16:57 CEST)
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is typically well-recognized by its characteristic motor symptoms (e.g., bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremor). The cognitive symptoms of PD are increasingly being acknowledged by clinicians and researchers alike. However, PD also involves a host of emotional and communicative changes which can cause major disruptions to social functioning. These include problems producing emotional facial expressions (i.e., facial masking) and emotional speech (i.e., dysarthria), as well as difficulties recognizing the verbal and non-verbal emotional cues of others. These social symptoms of PD can result in severe negative social consequences, including stigma, dehumanization, and loneliness, which might affect quality of life to an even greater extent than more well-recognized motor or cognitive symptoms. It is therefore imperative that researchers and clinicians become aware of these potential social symptoms and their negative effects, in order to properly investigate and manage the socioemotional aspects of PD. The present review provides an examination of the current research surrounding some of the most common social symptoms of PD and their related social consequences, and argues that proactively and adequately addressing these issues might improve disease outcomes.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0443.v1
Subject: Keywords: traumatic brain injury (TBI); Dysarthria; transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS); Quantitative Electroencephalography (QEEG); speech therapy
Online: 24 April 2020 (13:56:38 CEST)
Purpose: Dysarthria, a neurological injury of the motor component of the speech circuitry, is of common consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Palilalia is a speech disorder characterized by involuntary repetition of words, phrases, or sentences. Based on the evidence supporting the effectiveness of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in some speech and language disorders, we hypothesized that using tDCS would enhances the effectiveness of speech therapy in a client with chronic dysarthria following TBI. Method: We applied the constructs of the “Be Clear” protocol, a relatively new approach in speech therapy in dysarthria, together with tDCS on a chronic subject who affected by dysarthria and palilalia after TBI. Since there was no research on the use of tDCS in such cases, regions of interest (ROIs) were identified based on deviant brain electrophysiological patterns in speech tasks and resting state compared with normal expected patterns using the Quantitative Electroencephalography (QEEG) analysis. Results: Measures of perceptual assessments of intelligibility, an important index in the assessment of dysarthria, were superior to the primary protocol results immediately and 4 months after intervention. We did not find any factor other than the use of tDCS to justify this superiority. The percentage of repeated words, an index in palilalia assessment, had a remarkable improvement immediately after intervention but fell somewhat after 4 months. We justified this case with subcortical origins of palilalia. Conclusion: Our present case-based findings suggested that applying tDCS together with speech therapy may improve intelligibility in similar case profiles as compared to traditional speech therapy. To reconfirm the effectiveness of the above approach in cases with dysarthria following TBI, more investigation need to be pursued.