Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Social Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease

Version 1 : Received: 22 July 2020 / Approved: 25 July 2020 / Online: 25 July 2020 (11:16:57 CEST)

How to cite: Prenger, M.T.M.; Madray, R.; Van Hedger, K.; Anello, M.; MacDonald, P.A. Social Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease. Preprints 2020, 2020070604. Prenger, M.T.M.; Madray, R.; Van Hedger, K.; Anello, M.; MacDonald, P.A. Social Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease. Preprints 2020, 2020070604.


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is typically well-recognized by its characteristic motor symptoms (e.g., bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremor). The cognitive symptoms of PD are increasingly being acknowledged by clinicians and researchers alike. However, PD also involves a host of emotional and communicative changes which can cause major disruptions to social functioning. These include problems producing emotional facial expressions (i.e., facial masking) and emotional speech (i.e., dysarthria), as well as difficulties recognizing the verbal and non-verbal emotional cues of others. These social symptoms of PD can result in severe negative social consequences, including stigma, dehumanization, and loneliness, which might affect quality of life to an even greater extent than more well-recognized motor or cognitive symptoms. It is therefore imperative that researchers and clinicians become aware of these potential social symptoms and their negative effects, in order to properly investigate and manage the socioemotional aspects of PD. The present review provides an examination of the current research surrounding some of the most common social symptoms of PD and their related social consequences, and argues that proactively and adequately addressing these issues might improve disease outcomes.


Parkinson's disease; Emotion; Facial Masking; Dysarthria; Stigma; Dehumanization; Loneliness


Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 19 December 2022
Commenter: Derek Foden
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: My Parkinson disease symptoms started at the age of 47. The fingers on my left hand were stiff and were difficult to move. People noticed that my walk was not normal. I was often asked if I was hurt. I noticed nothing different about my walk. It was difficult getting up from a chair and getting out of a car. I was diagnosed a year later ,it was the onset of tremors starting in my right hand that caused my other symptoms to be recognized as Parkinson's.. I am now 59. With the new herbal medicine for Parkinson I purchased from  Multivitamincare . org  was my only way to get rid of my PD,the herbal formula effectively reversed my condition and alleviated all my symptoms, people are suffering from this Parkinson disease due to lack of information.
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