REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: biology; drug resistance; gene expression profiling; mRNA; multiple myeloma; prognosis; treatment
Online: 5 October 2021 (08:20:44 CEST)
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a genetically complex disease that results from a multistep transformation of normal to malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the initiation and heterogeneous evolution of MM remain largely unknown. A fundamental step needed to understand the oncogenesis of MM and its response to therapy is the identification of driver mutations. The introduction of gene expression profiling (GEP) in MM was an important step in elucidating the molecular heterogeneity of MM and its clinical relevance. Since some mutations in myeloma occur in non-coding regions, studies based on the analysis of mRNA provide more comprehensive information on the oncogenic pathways and mechanisms relevant to MM biology. In this review, we discuss the role of gene expression profiling in understanding the biology of multiple myeloma together with the clinical manifestation of the disease, as well as its impact on treatment decisions and future directions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: complication; dexamethasone; IMiD; infection; lenalidomide; multiple myeloma; neutropenia; Rd
Online: 1 September 2022 (09:46:28 CEST)
Lenalidomide-based regimens are effective treatment options for patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). However, they are associated with an increased risk of infectious complications. This study examines the clinical factors influencing the occurrence of infection in MM patients treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd). A retrospective analysis of all patients who received the Rd regimen between 2017-2021 at our institution was performed. The study group consisted of 174 patients and the median age was 65 years. Most patients (n=110, 63.2%) received the Rd treatment in second-line treatment. The majority of patients (64.3%) received bortezomib-based regimens in the first line of treatment. The median progression-free survival was 12.6 (95% CI: 9.5 – 16.2) months, and the median overall survival was 22.3 (95% CI: 15.9 – 28.6) months. The overall response rate was 64.1%, 12.7% of patients achieved complete response and 20.4% had a very good partial response. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, hypoalbuminemia (OR 4.2, 95%CI:1.6-11.2, p= 0.0039), autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) before Rd (OR 2.6, 95% CI:1.0- 6.7, p= 0.048) and anemia grade ≥3 (OR 5.0, 95%CI: 1.8-14.0, p= 0.002) were independent factors related to the occurrence of infections. In conclusion, in this large cohort of RRMM patients, AHSCT before Rd regimen therapy, hypoalbuminemia and anemia during treatment were identified as three independent factors influencing the frequency of infections during Rd therapy. Patients with established risk factors may benefit from optimal supportive therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: multiple myeloma; early mortality; blood plasma; circulating miRNA; hematological malignancies; molecular biomarker; multiparametric model; prognosissurvival
Online: 4 July 2022 (05:59:59 CEST)
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Despite the progress made in treatment, some MM patients still die within the first year of diagnosis. Numerous studies investigating microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns suggest they may be good prognostic markers. The primary aim of this study was to analyze the expression of selected miRNAs in the serum of MM patients subsequently treated with bortezomib-based regimens and determine their potential to predict early mortality. The study was conducted in 69 prospectively-recruited patients with newly-diagnosed MM admitted to the Department of Hematology of the Copernicus Memorial Hospital, Lodz (Poland) between 2017 and 2021. Among them, 17 patients experienced death within 12 months of diagnosis. The expression of 31 selected miRNAs was determined using miRCURY LNA miRNA Custom PCR Panel. The obtained clinical data included patient characteristics on diagnosis, treatment regimen, response to treatment, and follow-up. Differential expression analysis found two miRNAs to be significantly downregulated in the early mortality group: hsa-miR-328-3p (fold change- FC: 0.72, p=0.0342) and hsa-miR-409-3p (FC: 0.49, p=0.0357). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the early mortality rate. The final model consisted of hsa-miR-409-3p, hsa-miR-328-3p, age and R-ISS 3. It yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.863 (95%CI: 0.761-0.965) with 88.2% sensitivity and 77.5% specificity. Further external validation of our model is necessary to confirm its clinical value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0498.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: bortezomib; IL-13; IL-1Ra; IL-4; multiple myeloma; OS; PFS
Online: 26 November 2021 (10:31:50 CET)
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the malignant proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow with an elevation in monoclonal paraprotein, renal impairment, hypercalcemia, lytic bony lesions, and anemia. Immune cells and associated cytokines play a significant role in MM growth, progression, and dissemination. While some cytokines and their clinical significance are well described in MM biology, others remain relatively unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of pretreatment serum levels of 27 selected cytokines on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in MM patients before first-line therapy with bortezomib-based regimens. Serum cytokine levels were assayed with a Bio-Rad Bio-Plex Pro Human Cytokine 27-Plex Assay on the MAGPIX Multiplex Reader and the Bio-Plex® 200 System (Bio-Rad) including IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, Eotaxin, FGF, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, PDGF-BB, RANTES, TNF-α, and VEGF. A total of 61 MM patients were examined. Most patients received a bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (VCD) chemotherapy regimen. In the final multivariate model, IL-13 cytokine level (HR 0.1411, 95% CI: 0.0240-0.8291, p = 0.0302), and ASCT (HR 0.3722, 95% CI: 0.1826-0.7585, p=0.0065) significantly impacted PFS. Furthermore, ASCT (HR 0.142, 95% CI: 0.046-0.438, p=0.0007), presence of bone disease at diagnosis (HR 3.826, 95% CI: 1.471-9.949, p=0.0059) and two cytokine levels- IL-1Ra (HR 1.017, 95% CI: 1.004-1.030, p= 0.0091) and IL-4 (HR 0.161, 95% CI: 0.037-0.698, p = 0.0147) were independent predictors of OS. Three clusters of MM patients were identified with different cytokine profiles. In conclusion, serum pretreatment levels of IL-13 and IL-4 are predictors of better PFS and OS, respectively, whereas IL-1Ra pretreatment levels negatively impact OS in MM patients treated with bortezomib-based chemotherapy. Cytokine signature profile may have a potential influence on the outcome of patients treated with bortezomib.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0287.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: ABCB1; bortezomib; CXCR4; gene expression; MAF; MARCKS; multiple myeloma; mRNA; POMP; PSMB5; refractory; RPL5; TXN; XBP1; sensitive
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:17:31 CET)
Proteasome inhibitors, like bortezomib, play a key role in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM); however, most patients eventually relapse and eventually show multiple drug resistance, and the molecular mechanisms of this resistance remain unclear. The present study examines the expression of previously-described genes that may influence resistance to bortezomib treatment at the mRNA level (ABCB1, CXCR4, MAF, MARCKS, POMP, PSMB5, RPL5, TXN and XBP1). mRNA expression was determined in 73 MM patients treated with bortezomib-based regimens (30 bortzomib-sensitive and 43 bortezomib-refractory patients) and 11 healthy controls. RPL5 was significantly down-regulated in multiple myeloma patients as compared with healthy controls. Moreover, POMP was significantly up-regulated in MM patients refractory to bortezomib-based treatment. In multivariate analysis, high expression of PSMB5 and CXCR and autologous stem cell transplantation were independent predictors of progression-free survival, and high expression of POMP and RPL5 was associated with shorter overall survival.