ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0343.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: protein; exercise; muscle damage; creatine kinase; myoglobin; inflammation
Online: 16 July 2020 (06:33:18 CEST)
This randomized trial compared pea protein, whey protein, and water-only supplementation on muscle damage, inflammation, delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), and physical fitness test performance during a 5-day period after a 90-minute eccentric exercise bout in non-athletic, non-obese males (n=92, ages 18-55 years). The two protein sources (0.9 g protein/kg divided into three doses/day) were administered under double blind procedures. The eccentric exercise protocol induced significant muscle damage and soreness, and reduced bench press and 30-second Wingate performance. Whey protein supplementation significantly attenuated post-exercise blood levels for biomarkers of muscle damage compared to water-only, with large effect sizes for creatine kinase and myoglobin during the 4th and 5th days of recovery (Cohen's d >0.80); pea protein versus water supplementation had an intermediate, non-significant effect (Cohen's d <0.50); and no significant differences between whey and pea protein were found. Whey and pea protein compared to water supplementation had no significant effects on post-exercise DOMS and the fitness tests. In conclusion, high intake of whey protein for 5 days after intensive eccentric exercise mitigated efflux of muscle damage biomarkers, with intake of pea protein having an intermediate effect in part due to the 24% lower leucine amino acid content.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: creatine; statin; myopathy; muscle; myalgia; prevention; treatment; pathogenesis; pathophysiology; mitochondria
Online: 11 September 2019 (04:43:37 CEST)
Statins prevent cardiovascular diseases, yet their use is limited by the muscle disturbances they cause. Rarely, statin-induced myopathy is autoimmune, but more commonly it is due to direct muscle toxicity. Available evidence suggests that statin-induced creatine deficiency may be a major cause of this toxicity, and that creatine supplementation prevents it. Statins inhibit guanidinoacetate methyl transferase (GAMT), the last enzyme in the synthesis of creatine, thus they decrease its intracellular content. Such decreased content could cause mitochondrial impairment, since creatine is the final acceptor of the phosphate group of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) at the end of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Decreased cellular synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) would follow. Accordingly, ATP synthesis is decreased in statin-treated cells. In vitro, creatine supplementation prevents the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore caused by statins. Clinically, creatine administration prevents statin myopathy in statin-intolerant patients. Additional research is warranted to hopefully confirm these findings. However, creatine is widely used by athletes with no adverse events, and has demonstrated to be safe even in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of elder individuals. Thus, it should be trialed, under medical supervision, in patients who cannot assume statin due to the occurrence of muscular symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1686.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Schizophrenia; Lactate; Physical exercise; Creatine Kinase (CK); C-Reactive Protein (CRP)
Online: 24 August 2023 (08:20:32 CEST)
Background: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder associated with inflammatory and oxidative stress markers such as lactate; in addition, the rate of physical inactivity in this population is very high, which leads to physical and metabolic alterations. Aims: This study measured the effect of assisted physical exercise over lactate levels in schizophrenia. Methods: Stable outpatients with schizophrenia and a group of Healthy controls received two different programs of Physical exercise (Aerobic and Functional) in a clinical trial. Results: Patients had higher lactate compared to healthy controls before and after intervention, and had higher rate of lactate increase after activity. The finding of increased lactate in schizophrenia detected before and after physical exercise deserve further attention in biomarker studies and in the development of physical rehabilitation in schizophrenia, suggesting different profile of oxidative metabolism after physical exercise. Basal increased lactate may reflect mitochondrial dysfunction or metabolic dysregulation, and the higher rate of increase may reflect a different metabolic and oxidative process. Conclusion: The finding is in line with recent studies as surrogate of mitochondrial dysfunction in schizophrenia and points to the need of additional studies on mitochondrial activity in schizophrenia, and to additional care in the design of physical interventions in schizophrenia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0214.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: soccer performance; supplements; diet; systematic review; high carbohydrate diet; creatine supplementation; tart cherry; betaine; bicarbonate and minerals; professional players
Online: 11 April 2023 (08:47:56 CEST)
Background: More than 270 million participants and 128,893 professional players play soccer. Research only weakly supports the impact of diets and supplements on the performance and recovery of professional soccer players. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search in Pub-Med, Scopus, Web of Science, and clinical trial registers. Inclusion criteria focused on professional or semi-professional soccer players, nutrition or diet interventions, performance improvement outcomes, and randomized clinical trial study types. We assessed quality using the Risk of Bias 2 (RoB 2) tool. We identified 16 eligible articles involving 310 participants. No nutritional intervention during the recovery period effectively improved recovery. However, several perfor-mance-based interventions showed positive effects, such as tart cherry supplementation, raw pistachio nut kernels, bicarbonate and mineral ingestion, creatine supplementation, betaine consumption, symbiotic supplements, and a high carbohydrate diet. These interventions influenced various aspects of soccer performance, including endurance, speed, agility, strength, power, explosiveness, and anaerobic capacity. Conclusions: Specific strategies, such as solutions with bicarbonate and minerals, high carbohydrate diets, and supplements like creatine, betaine, and tart cherry, can enhance the performance of professional soccer players. These targeted nutritional interventions may help optimize performance and provide the competitive edge required in professional soccer. We did not find any dietary interventions that could enhance recovery during recovery.