REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0007.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: computerized tomography; coronavirus disease 2019; echocardiography; lung ultrasound
Online: 1 June 2021 (09:31:10 CEST)
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the pandemic challenge of the last year. Cardiovascular involvement is one of the main characteristics of this disease. Due to endothelial damage, consequent phlogosis may increase a thrombosis risk. Cardiac injury may occur in different ways. However, an ischemic involvement of the cardiovascular system is rarely implied. In this regard, direct and indirect effects of COVID-19 are described. Nonetheless, the possible evaluation of the cardiovascular system may require different modalities. The cardiovascular evaluation may be different in emergency compared to critical care, requiring different tools for each setting. The aim of this review is to explore these modalities according to the different involvement of the cardiovascular system..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0092.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: idiographic approach; computerized adaptive practicing; intraindividual variation; cognitive development; mathematics
Online: 13 February 2018 (08:40:04 CET)
Molenaar’s manifesto on psychology as idiographic science brought the N = 1 times series perspective firmly to the attention of developmental scientists. The rich intraindividual variation in complex developmental processes requires the study of these processes at the level of the individual. Yet, the idiographic approach is all but easy in practical research. One major limitation is the collection of short interval times series of high quality data on developmental processes. In this paper we present a novel measurement approach to this problem. We developed an online practice and monitoring system which is now used by thousands of Dutch primary school children on a daily or weekly basis, providing a new window on cognitive development. We will introduce the origin of this new instrument, called Math Garden, explain its setup, and present and discuss ways to analyze children’s individual developmental pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0290.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: COVID-19; image-based diagnosis; artificial intelligence; machine learning; deep learning; computerized tomography; coronavirus disease
Online: 14 October 2020 (09:07:51 CEST)
Several studies suggest that COVID-19 may be accompanied by symptoms such as a dry cough, muscle aches, sore throat, and mild to moderate respiratory illness. The symptoms of this disease indicate the fact that COVID-19 causes noticeable negative effects on the lungs. Therefore, considering the health status of the lungs using X-rays and CT scans of the chest can significantly help diagnose COVID-19 infection. Due to the fact that most of the methods that have been proposed to COVID-19 diagnose deal with the lengthy testing time and also might give more false positive and false negative results, this paper aims to review and implement artificial intelligence (AI) image-based diagnosis methods in order to detect coronavirus infection with zero or near to zero false positives and false negatives rates. Besides the already existing AI image-based medical diagnosis method for the other well-known disease, this study aims on finding the most accurate COVID-19 detection method among AI methods such as machine learning (ML) and artificial neural network (ANN), ensemble learning (EL) methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0032.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: computerized revenue collection; machine learning; cyber security; software defined networks; object-oriented programming; online database management
Online: 3 October 2019 (01:45:11 CEST)
The need for the most accurate and flexible system of revenue collection from internal sources has become a matter of extreme urgency and importance in e-governance. This need underscores the eagerness on the part of the Government to look for a new principle and policy of revenue collection or to become aggressive and innovative in the mode of collecting revenue from existing sources using the present system. The Boards of some Governments in Africa, even up to the moment are facing a lot of setbacks in performing their tasks due to the manual system of revenue collection from the public. This can be improved through an effective collection of revenue using the most accurate and flexible system. Tax is usually collected in the form of specific sales tax, general sales tax, corporate income tax, individual income tax, property tax and inheritance tax. Problems such as high cost of collection, fraud, underpayment, leakage in revenue, poor access to information, poor tracking of defaulters is at the increase. As a result of this, there is need to computerize the revenue collection system. Computerized systems have proven to introduce massive efficiencies and quick collection of revenue from the public. This research work demonstrates how to design and implement an automated system of revenue collection and how to maintain a secured database for collected tax information. This research delves into the study of how machine learning algorithms and Software-defined Networks improve the security of such automated systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0139.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: computer-aided detection (CAD) system\and computerized tomography (CT) scan; acquisition; segmentation; Classification and Principal Components Analysis (PCA)
Online: 14 September 2019 (18:25:45 CEST)
Lung cancer is a deadly disease if not diagnosed in its early stages. However, early detection of lung cancer is a challenging task due to the shape and size of its nodules. Radiologists need support from automated tools for precise opinion. Automated detection of the affected lungs nodule is difficult because of the shape similarity among healthy tissues. Over the years, several expert systems have been developed that help radiologists to diagnose lung cancer. In this article, we propose a framework to precisely detect lungs cancer by classifying it between benign and malignant nodules. The framework is tested using the subset of the publicly available at the Lung Image Database Consortium image collection (LIDC-IDRI). Multiple techniques including filtering and noise removing are applied for pre-processing. Subsequently, the OTSU and the semantic segmentation are used to accurately detect the unhealthy lungs nodules. In total, 13 nodules features were extracted using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) algorithm. Four optimal features are selected based on the classification performance. In the classification phase, 9 different classifiers are used along with two types of validation schemes i.e. train test holdout validation with 70-30 data split and 10 fold cross-validation. Our experiments show that the proposed system provides 99.23\% accuracy using logic boost classifier.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0202.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Clinical handover; Patient Handoff; Patient transfer; Referral and Consultation; Medical Records Systems; Computerized; Patient Safety; Risk Management; Attitude; Institutional Practice
Online: 31 May 2022 (07:14:42 CEST)
Background: Handover is a critical process for ensuring quality and safety in healthcare. Considerable research suggests that poor handover results in significant morbidity, mortality, dissatisfaction, and excess financial costs. Despite this, little formal attention, education, and evaluation has been given to handover. There is also paucity of data on the opinions of practitioners on the safety of handover.Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure the perceived risk, degree of patient harm and the systems used to support handover, and to understand how this varied by care setting, type of clinical practice, location, or level of experience. Methods: An open, anonymous and confidential online questionnaire covering: (a) respondent characteristics; (b) peer-to-peer handover; (c) internal referrals; (d) discharges and transfers between organisations; and (e) leading and improving handover was conducted with healthcare practitioners and managers from various settings. Results: We gathered a total of 432 completed responses from 26 countries. The average reported performance of handover was rated as 3.9 out of 5.For each type of handover, 12 - 14% reported errors occurring more than weekly. Of those that knew the outcome of such errors, between 29% and 34% reported that they had witnessed moderate or severe harm. 12% and 17% of respondents believed that handover was high or very high risk (See table 4). These respondents were more likely to have witnessed moderate or severe harm, or to be more senior.A wide combination of handover systems was utilised by respondents. 28% - 32% relied exclusively on EPRs (with or without face-to-face contact). 21% used Office documents such as Word and Excel for peer-to-peer handover, and over 30% used hand-written or manual systems. Conclusions: This study suggests the need to do more — and go further — to improve communication and reduce risk during all types of handovers. Clinical leaders should find ways to train and support handover with effective systems, with less experienced staff being the primary focus. More research is needed to demonstrate the interventions that improve the safety of handover.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0250.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: anatomy; neuroanatomy; conus medullaris; Multicolumn Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS); soma-totopy; dorsal columns; Computerized Electrical Modeling; Neuro-Fiber-Mapping; super-selective spinal cord stimulation
Online: 18 October 2022 (05:29:38 CEST)
Spinal Cord (SC) Anatomy is often assimilated to a morphologically encapsulated neural entity, but its functional anatomy remains only partially understood. We hypothesized that it could be possible to reexplore SC neural networks by performing live electrostimulation mapping, based on “super-selective” Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS), originally designed as a therapeutical tool to address chronic refractory pain. As a starting point, we initiated a systematic SCS lead programming approach using live electrostimulation mapping on a chronic refractory perineal pain patient, previously implanted with multicolumn SCS at the level of the conus medullaris (T12-L1). It appeared possible to (re)explore the classical anatomy of the conus medullaris using statistical correlations of paresthesia coverage mappings, resulting from 165 different electrical configurations tested. We highlighted that sacral dermatomes were not only located more medially but also deeper than lumbar dermatomes at the level of the conus medullaris, in contrast with classical anatomical descriptions of SC somatotopical organization. As we were finally able to find a morpho-functional description of ‘Philippe-Gombault’s triangle’, in 19th century historical textbooks of neuroanatomy, matching remarkably with these conclusions, the concept of “Neuro-Fiber-Mapping” was introduced.