ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0102.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: drug screening； bone mineralization； osteoclast； zebrafish
Online: 21 September 2017 (06:34:11 CEST)
Currently, drug screening is primarily based on human cell culture for initial high-throughput screening, and subsequently, rodent model to confirm the biological effects. However, the mammalian system is known for time-consuming and highly-cost to be difficult to perform high-throughput drug screening, which exists a critical gap between in vitro cell-based models and the in vivo mammalian models. Therefore, the zebrafish could bridge this gap in preclinical toxicity screening along the drug development pipeline because of its efficiency. We aimed to develop an in vivo zebrafish platform for rapid drug screening. Zebrafish, due to its high genomic conservation with mammals and rapid development and differentiation, it has many advantages, such as short life span, large number of offspring and low cost, easy manipulation for generating transgenic species, to serve as animal model for disease-based research. In 96-well microplates, zebrafish embryos were incubated with small molecular compounds that affected bone mineralization. The level of osteogenic mineralization was evaluated by fluorescent dye staining and quantified by image analysis software. Quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to evaluate the biological pathways involved in bone metabolism at the molecular level. The system was validated by demonstrating that response to alendronate and Dorsomorphin in zebrafish. In our study, we screened for 24 compounds within the CYCU-1120~1152 chemical library and identified 3 compounds, pentamidine (CYCU-1140), BML-267 (CYCU-1147), and alendronate (CYCU-1152), increased embryonic mineralization; while 6 compounds, RWJ-60475 (CYCU-1126), levamisole HCL (CYCU-1128), tetramisole HCL (CYCU-1129), fenvalerate (CYCU-1132), NSC-663284 (CYCU-1138), and BML-267ester (CYCU-1148), were inhibitory to bone mineralization. We also found that alendronate enhanced the level of bone mineralization by inhibiting osteoclast-related genes. To sum up, our research showed that zebrafish may have potential to be a drug-screening and mechanism-analysis platform for bone mineralization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0446.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: medaka; behavior; phenomics; interspecies
Online: 19 May 2021 (13:46:49 CEST)
Recently, medaka has been used as a model organism in various research fields. However, even though it possesses several advantages over zebrafish, fewer studies were done in medaka than zebrafish, especially its behaviour. Thus, to provide more information regarding its behaviour and to demonstrate the be-havioural differences between several species of medaka, we compared the behavioural performance and biomarker expression in the brain between four medaka fishes, which were Oryzias latipes, O. dancena, O. woworae, and O. sinensis. From the results, we found that each medaka species explicitly exhib-ited different behaviours to each other, which might be related to the different basal levels of several biomarkers. Furthermore, by phenomics and ge-nomic-based clustering, the differences between these medaka fishes were further investigated. Interestingly, even though both phenomics and ge-nomic-based clustering showed some resemblances to each other in terms of the interspecies relationship between medaka and zebrafish, however, in the medaka interspecies comparisons, this similarity was not displayed. Therefore, these results suggest a re-interpretation of several prior studies in comparative biology. We hope that these results contribute to the growing database of medaka fish phenotypes and provide one of the foundations for future phe-nomics studies of medaka fish.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0419.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: artificial sweeteners; zebrafish; Daphnia; cardiac performance; toxicity
Online: 18 September 2020 (04:47:33 CEST)
Artificial sweeteners are widely used food ingredients in beverages and drinks to lower calorie intake which in turn prevent lifestyle diseases such as obesity. Epidemiological evidences suggest that an overdose of artificial sweeteners could result to adverse effects after consumption. Thus, our study aims to systematically explore the potential adverse effects of eight commercial artificial sweeteners, including acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, sodium cyclamate, dulcin, neotame, saccharin and sucralose on cardiac performances of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Daphnia as model animals. Embryonic zebrafish and Daphnia were exposed to eight artificial sweeteners at 100 ppb concentrations and their cardiac performance (heart rate, ejection fraction, fractional shortening, stroke volume, cardiac output and heartbeat regularity) were measured and compared. Saccharin significantly increased the heart rate of zebrafish larvae while a significant decrease was observed in Daphnia. Significant increase was also noted in zebrafish heart rate variability after incubation in acesulfame K, dulcin, sodium cyclamate, and sucralose. However, a significant increase in Daphnia was only observed after incubation in dulcin. Based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering results, several artificial sweetener samples were species-specific to zebrafish and Daphnia. Our study demonstrates the potential adverse physiological effects of artificial sweeteners in cardiovascular systems of zebrafish larvae and Daphnia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0424.v1
Online: 21 October 2020 (09:31:42 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death worldwide. This condition resulted in huge research on CVD increasing the need for animal models suitable for the in vivo research. Daphnia and Zebrafish are good animal models for cardiovascular research due to their relative body transparency and easy culture property. Several methods have been developed to conduct cardiac performance measurement in Daphnia and Zebrafish. However, most of the methods only able to obtain heartbeat rate. The other important cardiac endpoints like stroke volume, ejection fraction, fraction shortening, cardiac output and heartbeat regularity must use other programs for measurement. To overcome this limitation, in this study, we successfully developed a one-stop ImageJ-based method using kymograph macros language that able to obtain multiple cardiac performance endpoints simultaneously for the first time. To validate its utility, we incubate Daphnia magna at different ambient temperatures and exposed zebrafish with astemizole to detect the corresponding cardiac performance alterations. In summary, the kymograph method reported in this study provides a new, easy to use, and inexpensive one-stop method on obtaining multiple cardiac performance endpoints with high accuracy and convenience.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0376.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: fullerene; fish; daphnia; toxicity; aquatic animal; nanomaterial
Online: 17 September 2020 (05:51:49 CEST)
Fullerene molecules are composed of carbon in forms of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, or tube. Fullerenes have attracted considerable attention in different fields of science since their discovery in 1985. The unique carbon cage structure of fullerene provides immense scope for derivatization, rendering potential for various industrial applications. The prospective applications of fullerenes thus have led to assorted fullerene derivatives. The unique chemical structure also provides ease for fullerene to be synthesized through various kinds of conjugating techniques, where fullerene can be located either on the backbone or the branch chain. Here in this review, we have compiled the toxicity and biosafety aspects of fullerene in aquatic organisms. The frequent use of fullerene is likely to come in contact and interact with the aquatic environment and aquatic organisms. According to the current understanding, waterborne exposure to fullerene-based nanomaterials indeed triggers toxicities at cellular, organic, molecular as well as neurobehavioral levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0382.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: donepezil; acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; dementia; zebrafish; behavior
Online: 17 September 2020 (07:41:35 CEST)
Donepezil (DPZ) is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used for the clinical treatment of mild cognitive impairment. However, DPZ has been reported to have adverse effects, including abnormal cardiac rhythm, insomnia, vomiting, and muscle cramps. However, the existence of these effects in subjects without Dementia is unknown. In this study, we use zebrafish to conduct a deeper analysis of the potential adverse effects of DPZ on the short-term memory and behaviors of normal zebrafish by performing multiple behavioral and biochemical assays. Adult zebrafish were exposed to 1 ppm and 2.5 ppm of DPZ. From the results, DPZ caused a slight improvement in the short-term memory of zebrafish and induced significant elevation in aggressiveness, while the novel tank and shoaling tests revealed anxiolytic-like behavior to be caused by DPZ. Furthermore, zebrafish circadian locomotor activity displayed a higher reduction of locomotion and abnormal movement orientation in both low- and high-dose groups, compared to the control group. Biomarker assays revealed that these alterations were associated with an elevation of oxytocin and a reduction of cortisol levels in the brain. Moreover, the significant increases of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in muscle tissue suggest DPZ exposure induced muscle tissue oxidative stress and muscle weakness, which may underlie the locomotor activity impairment. In conclusion, we show, for the first time, that the chronic waterborne exposure of DPZ can severely induce adverse effects on normal zebrafish in a dose-dependent manner. These unexpected adverse effects on behavioral alteration should be carefully addressed in future studies considering DPZ conducted on zebrafish or other animals.