ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0289.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: sphingolipidome; ceramides; high resolution mass spectrometry; whole blood; plasma
Online: 10 March 2021 (16:06:08 CET)
Plasma and serum are the most widely used blood-derived biofluids for metabolomics and lipidomics assays, but the isolation of these products from blood may introduce additional bias as indicated by the fact that many analytes that are present at high concentrations in blood cells cannot be measured and evaluated in those samples. Of particular concern, variable hemolysis during the pre-processing of blood products could compromise accurate and reproducible quantification. Compared with plasma or serum, whole blood may be a better alternative due to simplicity of processing. In this study, we provide a comprehensive method for quantification of the whole blood sphingolipidome and the concentrations were compared with those from plasma. Combining a single-phase extraction method with liquid-chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (R=120, 000), assisted by alkaline hydrolysis, we were able to identify and simultaneously quantify more than 150 sphingolipids. Furthermore, most of sphingolipids remained stable after a freeze/thaw cycle. Whole blood contained a higher concentration of most sphingolipids than corresponding plasma. Moreover, individual variations in the levels of sphingolipids were lower for whole blood than plasma. These findings demonstrate that whole blood could be a better alternative to plasma, and potentially guide the evaluation of sphinglipidome for biomarker discovery.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: ST-elevation myocardial infarction; Thrombus; Thrombus aspiration; Micro-CT; ceramides
Online: 5 January 2021 (13:43:37 CET)
ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The identification of novel metabolic and imaging biomarkers could unveil key pathophysiological mechanisms at the molecular level and promote personalized care in patients with acute coronary syndromes. We studied 38 patients with STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention and thrombus aspiration. We sought to correlate serum ceramide levels with micro-CT quantified aspirated thrombus volume and relevant angiographic outcomes, including modified TIMI thrombus grade and pre- or post-procedural TIMI flow. Higher ceramide C16:0 levels were significantly, but weakly correlated with larger aspirated thrombus volume (Spearman r=0.326, p=0.046), larger intracoronary thrombus burden (Nagelkerke R2=0.236, p=0.030) and worse pre- and post-procedural TIMI flow (Nagelkerke R2=0.210; p=0.049 and Nagelkerke R2=0.277; p=0.039, respectively). Ceramides C24:0 and C24:1 were also significantly associated with larger intracoronary thrombus burden (Nagelkerke R2=0.311; p=0.008 and Nagelkerke R2=0.423; p=0.001, respectively). In conclusion, serum ceramide levels (mainly C16:0 and C24:1) were higher among patients with larger intracoronary and aspirated thrombus burden. This suggests that quantification of serum ceramides might improve risk-stratification of patients with STEMI and facilitate a more individualized approach in everyday clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0716.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: insulin resistance; Alzheimer’s disease; ApoE4; dyslipidemia; ceramides; mitochondrial bioenergetics; cerebral cortex
Online: 12 September 2023 (14:19:04 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease worldwide. A large body of work implicates insulin resistance in the development and progression of AD such that AD may be a form of brain insulin resistance. Moreover, impairment in mitochondrial function, a common symptom of insulin resistance, now represents a fundamental aspect of AD pathobiology. Ceramides are a class of bioactive sphingolipids that have been hypothesized to drive insulin resistance. Here we describe preliminary work that tests the hypothesis that hyperinsulinemia pathologically alters cerebral mitochondrial function in AD mice via accrual of the ceramides. Homozygous male and female ApoE4 mice were given chronic injections of PBS (control), insulin, myriocin (an inhibitor of ceramide biosynthesis), or insulin and myriocin over four weeks. Cerebral ceramide content was assessed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates were measured with high-resolution respirometry, and H2O2 emissions were quantified via biochemical assays on brain tissue from the cerebral cortex. Significant increases in brain ceramides and impairments in brain oxygen consumption were observed in the insulin-treated group. These hyperinsulinemia-induced impairments in mitochondrial function were reversed with the administration of myriocin. Altogether, these data demonstrate a causative role for insulin in promoting brain ceramide accrual and subsequent mitochondrial impairments that may be involved in AD expression and progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1966.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: peripheral artery disease; biomarker; ceramides; CERT; mortality; MACE; risk factors; statin
Online: 28 July 2023 (11:43:11 CEST)
Background: Ceramides are a new kind of lipid biomarkers and have already been demonstrated to be valuable risk predictors in coronary patients. Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) are a population with worse prognosis and higher mortality risk compared to coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. However, the value of ceramides for risk prediction in PAD patients is still vague and has been addressed in the present study. Methods: This observational study included 379 PAD patients. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at 10 years of follow-up. A set of ceramides was measured by LC-MS/MS and combined according to the coronary event risk test (CERT) score which categorizes patients into one of four risk groups (low risk, moderate risk, high risk, very high risk). Results: Kaplan Meier survival curves revealed that the overall survival of patients has decreased with the increasing risk predicted by the four CERT categories, advancing from low risk to very high risk. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that every 1-step increase in category resulted in a 35% rise in overall mortality risk (HR=1.35 [1.16-1.58]). Multivariable adjustment, including amongst others age, T2DM, and statin treatment before baseline, did not abrogate this significant association (HR=1.22 [1.04-1.43]). Moreover, we found that the beneficial effect of statin is significantly stronger in patients with a higher risk according to CERT. Conclusion: We conclude that the ceramide-based risk score CERT is a strong predictor of the 10-year mortality risk in patients with PAD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea; Metabolomics; Triglycerides; Phosphocholines; Ceramides; Apnea Hypopnea Index; Polysomnography; Lipid metabolism; Multilevel Sleep Surgery
Online: 15 July 2020 (09:19:05 CEST)
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is caused by partial or complete obstruction of the upper airways. Corrective surgeries aim at removing obstructions in the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx. OSA is associated with increased risk of various metabolic diseases. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of surgery on the plasma metabolome. Methods: This study included 39 OSA patients who underwent Multilevel Sleep Surgery (MLS). Clinical and anthropometric measures were taken at baseline and 5 months after surgery. Results: The mean Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) significantly dropped from 22.0 ± 18.5 events/hour to 8.97 ± 9.57 events/hour (p-Value <0.001). The Epworth’s sleepiness Score (ESS) dropped from 12.8 ± 6.23 to 2.95 ± 2.40 (p-Value <0.001) indicating success of the surgery in treating OSA. Plasma levels of metabolites, phosphocholines (PC) PC.41.5, PC.42.3, ceremide (Cer) Cer.44.0, and triglyceride (TG) TG.53.6, TG.55.6 and TG.56.8 were decreased (p-Value<0.05) whereas lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC) 20.0 and PC.39.3 were increased (p-Value<0.05) after surgery. Conclusion: This study highlights the success of MLS in treating OSA. Treatment of OSA resulted in improvement in metabolic status that was characterized by decreased TG, PCs and Cer metabolites post-surgery indicating that the success of the surgery positively impacted the metabolic status of these patients.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: glycolipidomics; GIPC; glycosyl inositol phospho ceramides; Lipid Data Analyzer; lipidomics; sphingolipids; ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography; high-resolution mass spectrometry; LC-MS; automated annotation
Online: 8 September 2020 (12:34:56 CEST)
Glycosyl inositol phospho ceramides (GIPCs) are the major sphingolipids on earth as they account for a considerable fraction of the total lipids in plants and fungi which in turn represent a large portion of the biomass on earth. Despite their obvious importance, GIPC analysis remains challenging due to the lack of commercial standards and automated annotation software. In this work, we introduce a novel GIPC glycolipidomics workflow based on reversed-phase ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. For the first time, automated GIPC assignment was performed using the open-source software Lipid Data Analyzer based on platform-independent decision rules. Four different plant samples (salad, spinach, raspberry, strawberry) were analyzed and revealed 64 GIPCs based on accurate mass, characteristic MS2 fragments and matching retention times. Relative quantification using lactosyl ceramide for internal standardization revealed GIPC t18:1/h24:0 as the most abundant species in all plants. Depending on the plant sample, GIPCs contained mainly amine, N-acetylamine or hydroxyl residues. Most GIPCs revealed a Hex-HexA-IPC core and contained a ceramide part with a trihydroxylated t18:0 or t18:1 long chain base and hydroxylated fatty acid chains ranging from 16 to 26 carbon atoms in length (h16:0 – h26:0). Interestingly, six GIPCs containing t18:2 were observed in raspberry, which was not reported so far. The presented workflow supports the characterization of different plant samples by automatic GIPC assignment potentially leading to the identification of new GIPCs. For the first time, automated high‑throughput profiling of these complex glycolipids is possible by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry and subsequent automated glycolipid annotation based on decision rules.