ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0138.v1
Online: 8 August 2022 (08:37:14 CEST)
Since last century, humanity has been using and disposing of resources at a greater rate than the Earth’s biocapacity to regenerate. Consequently, habitats are being destroyed, climate is changing and, for most, life conditions are deteriorating. To avoid collapse, humanity has been, at least in theory, trying to change the foundations of development so that it becomes ‘sustainable’ and, while meeting the social, economic and environmental needs of the present, does not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. To help on this task, in the 1960s, UNESCO proposed the establishment of laboratories for developing and testing sustainable approaches. These became known as Biosphere Reserves or, simply, biospheres. Today, Biosphere Reserves are considered to be the main instrument for testing and monitoring sustainable development approaches. By 2020, there were more than 700 biospheres in over 120 countries around the world - one third of which are located in prosperous countries with very-high human development levels. As of today, there is no mechanism to objectively measure the effectiveness of these reserves that also allows comparison between biospheres, their development approaches and outcomes, or over time. The objective of this work is to present a tool that fulfills these gaps and that, additionally, helps with establishing aspirational targets and identifying key areas that need improvement. The tool focuses on Biosphere Reserves located in countries with very-high levels of human development (but can be easily adapted to other countries); it addresses the 17 sustainable development goals and considers relevant international agreements. It is based on the rational that, to become widely used, it needs to be simple. Therefore, it uses data collected for other ends, hence available, and commonly used technology, such as excel. The tool consists of a spreadsheet that links a punctuating and a colouring system to topics, criteria, indicators and measures. The case study was on the Sunshine Coast region (Australia), which is in the process of being nominated a biosphere reserve.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0009.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: sustainable development; sustainability; biosphere reserves; business models; sustainable business models; climate protection; climate change adaptation; resilience
Online: 5 May 2019 (10:15:35 CEST)
The goal of Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme is to support sustainable development through effective management, innovative technologies, policy suggestion and governance. Today, the concept of Biosphere Reserves plays an important role in scientific investigations, generating knowledge, and experiences to link socio-economic development and biodiversity conservation for human well-being. This research, through an independent study which takes place in the Hungarian Biosphere Reserves of Pilis and Kiskunság aims at identifying practical sustainable business models which are suitable for supporting livelihood of locals. In this research, the two Biosphere Reserves serve as the learning sites under the light of global principles and state-of-the-art-of knowledge on sustainable development and sustainable business models. To do so, the state-of-the-art-of sustainable business model has been investigated through a comprehensive academic research. The lessons that learned from this investigation are used to support the data gathering method and planning the field trips to identify the sustainable business models currently in use at the Biosphere Reserves. This research particularly had been interested in small-sized sustainable business models practiced by small communities or families in various zones of Biosphere Reserves. First set of interviews and questionnaires designed to identify the business models in practice. The results identify foraging the wild plants in the buffer zone and transition areas as a potential sustainable business model in practice. Further interviews and surveys were conducted with foragers shows the beneficial of their practice on the local ecosystem and in increasing awareness on the deep connection with the ecosystems. The sustainable business model of foraging in addition to providing a sustainable livelihood for the locals maintains a spiritual connection between people and land. The identified sustainable business model can further be educational and practical for other 685 biosphere reserves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0514.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Anthropocene; Noosphere; Biosphere; Morphology; Metamorphosis; Geophysiology
Online: 30 September 2021 (13:16:55 CEST)
The Anthropocene has created a new cartography. Various disciplines and discourses overlap each other. Two fields of knowledge: geology and anthropology are unified in one single concept. The Axial Age separated everyday practices from an unbiased and objective view of the world. Romanticism, in the nineteenth century, challenged the separation between the natural sciences and the sciences of the spirit. Paul J. Crutzen and Eugene Stoermer had two distinct parts; a first establishes "a period of time" the second an "epistemic tool". This paper is intended to illustrate the epistemological dimension of the Anthropocene. The Anthropocene defines the present geological epoch as dominated by humans. Eduard Suess, Antonio Stopani, Teilhard de Chardin, Vladimir Vernadsky etc., a century ago, anticipated the concept of Anthropocene. "Noösphere" is a term from the "world of thought". The hypothesis of an earth as a living organism, which is inspired by J.W. Goethe's "Naturwissenschaft", allows two disciplines to be inte-grated into one term: geology and anthropology. We have atmospheric phenomena that are in-compressible without presupposing life. The Anthropocene modifies the foundations of our vi-sion of the world. In the Gaia Hypothesis we find the same roots as in the Anthropocene concept: Goethe, Vernadky, etc. The concepts of symbiogenesis, homeostasis, etc., allow us to formulate new questions. This paper analyzes the reconfiguration of relations between the earth and all its inhabitants. It is, for the social sciences, a challenge: a metamorphosis of our vision of the world is taking place.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0008.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Anthropocene; Noosphere; Biosphere; Morphology; Metamorphosis; Geophysiology
Online: 2 August 2021 (09:33:22 CEST)
The Anthropocene has created a new cartography where various discursive levels are intertwined. It unites two fields of knowledge: geology and anthropology. In the 19th century, Romanticism challenged the separation between natural sciences and spirit sciences. With the Anthropocene a geological era is established, but with an epistemological dimension: environmental catastrophes are not a passive "object", they become an agent of social and political change. Images of the world (Weltbild) turn nature into an animated whole that challenges the dual vision: observer and observed. There is no nature without "observer", nor geology without anthropology. The Anthropocene modifies the foundations of our view of the world where we had excluded life. This is how concepts such as symbiogenesis, homeostasis, etc., which make visible and try to explain phenomena that are otherwise inexplicable. The Naturwissenschaft by J.W. Goethe is a point of support, with all these ideas that develop in the 20th century and anticipate the Anthropocene term of the 21th century. While the concepts of "belief" and "science" continue to be sharpened, rehabilitating "old quarrels" around anthropology, cosmology, theology, etc. The dignity of man is at stake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0557.v1
Online: 30 July 2018 (05:11:32 CEST)
A speculative argument is presented which suggests the possible existence of a global metasystem that would be characterized as an emerging from the interaction of the units that make up the planetary system. The metasystem´s units would be the different physical, chemical and biological processes occurring in the subsystems that form the metasystem: magnetosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. The revised global metasystem is broader than that considered in the Gaia theory or in Earth System Science, where the Earth's crust and upper atmosphere, i.e., the volume where the presence of life occurs, are considered as the limits of the system. The maintenance of the dynamic state of the global metasystem it is achieved by dissipating the free energy derived from the electromagnetic radiation of the Sun, the obtained from the Earth-Moon gravitational interaction and the energy resulting from the dynamics of the Earth core and mantle, which produces the magnetic field and much of tectonic activity. For the human species, the importance of a greater understanding of global metasystem is based on the fact that natural resources and the climate system are products of the subsystems of the global metasystem. It is possible therefore that human activities that modify the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, change the dynamics of global metasystem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0453.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: high-pressure microbiology; deep biosphere; cultivation devices; decompression
Online: 17 April 2021 (08:46:55 CEST)
High temperatures (HT) and high hydrostatic pressures (HHP) are characteristic of deep-sea hydrothermal vents and other deep crustal settings. These environments host vast and diverse microbial populations, yet only a small fraction of those populations have been successfully cultured. This is due, in part, to the difficulty of sampling while maintaining these in situ conditions and also replicating those high-temperature and high-pressure conditions in the laboratory. In an effort to facilitate more HT-HHP cultivation, we present two HT-HHP batch culture incubation systems for cultivating deep-sea vent and subsurface (hyper)thermophilic microorganisms. One HT-HHP system can be used for batch cultivation up to 110 MPa and 121°C, and requires sample decompression during subsampling. The second HT-HHP system can be used to culture microorganisms up to 100 MPa and 160°C with variable-volume, pressure-retaining vessels that negate whole-sample decompression during subsampling. Here, we describe how to build cost effective heating systems for these two types of high-pressure vessels, as well as the protocols for HT-HHP microbial batch cultivation in both systems. Additionally, we demonstrate HHP transfer between the variable-volume vessels, which has utility in sampling and enrichment without decompression, laboratory isolation experiments, as well as HHP filtration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0536.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Argan biosphere reserve; Climate change; Rainfall; Temperature; Woodland regression
Online: 24 May 2021 (07:44:25 CEST)
This paper explores the effect of climate change on the regression of the Argan tree (Argania spinosa L. Skeels) woodland, focusing on the Argan Biosphere Reserve and especially in the Souss plain (Western Morocco). Rainfall and temperature data of four sites within the Argan Biosphere Reserve were analyzed over the last 60 years to assess any climatic change. Regression curves applied to the dataset showed an important decrease in rainfall (18 to 26 %) in the four locations as well as an increase in temperature (1 to 2 °C). These changes may have a detrimental effect on the Argan woodland although human factors have been reported to be the main factor of its regression. It can therefore be concluded that the reduction in rainfall and the increase in temperature should now be considered as factors of Argan woodland regression.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Tropical Andes; Manu Biosphere Reserve; Astroblepus; Trichomycterus; Mauritia flexuosa
Online: 9 February 2021 (10:14:20 CET)
Our study analyzes the ecology and distribution of fish communities related to the environmental variables of the Alto Madre de Dios River, an Andean-Amazon watershed of southern Peru, between 300 and 2811 m a.s.l. within the Manu Biosphere Reserve. We provide new ecological and diversity data for these highly unknown rivers and new data for palm swamp habitats. With electric fishing techniques, we collected a total of 1934 fish specimens belonging to 78 species, 42 genera and 15 families. To assess main patterns of diversity we combined SIMPER and ANOSIM with canonical correspondence analysis to obtain an overview of the community structure of fish and their distribution related to aquatic habitats. Our results show an important shift on fish diversity at 700 m a.s.l. separating headwater and middle-lowland communities. Electrofishing was a hindrance due to the depth, flow and low conductivity of the rivers, but also allowed us to capture fish not observed with other techniques. We also compared the use of elevation with slope as an alternative variable for statistical analysis. Our results show that slope offers a solid and equivalent explanation for fish distribution variability, avoids redundance, and instead of giving geographical data offers ecologically solid information.