ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0743.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainability; building information modeling (BIM); Artificial Intelligence; optimization; renovation; field information modeling (FIM); Point Cloud; embodied Carbon and energy; deconstruction and demolition
Online: 12 July 2023 (08:08:16 CEST)
In Germany, as in many developed countries, over 60% of buildings were constructed before 1978, where most are in critical condition, requiring either demolition with plans for redevelopment or renovation and rehabilitation. Given the urgency of climate action and relevant sustainable development goals set by the United Nations, more attention must be shifted toward the various sustainability aspects when deciding on the strategy for renovation or redevelopment of existing buildings. To this end, this study focused on developing a smart decision support framework for aging buildings based on lifecycle sustainability considerations. The framework integrated digital technological advancements, such as building information modeling (BIM), point clouds processing with field information modeling (FIM)®, and structural optimization, together with life-cycle assessment to evaluate and rate the environmental impact of different solutions. Three sustainability aspects, namely, cost, energy consumption, and carbon emissions, were quantitatively evaluated and compared in two scenarios, namely, renovation, and demolition or deconstruction combined with redevelopment. A real building constructed in 1961 was the subject of the experiments to validate the framework. The result outlined the limitations and advantages of each method in terms of economics and environmental impact. It was further observed that optimizing the building design with the goal to reduce embodied energy and carbon in compliance with modern energy standards, was crucial to improve overall energy performance. This work demonstrated that the developed BIM-based framework to assess the environmental impact of rehabilitation work in aging buildings can provide effective ratings to guide decision-making in real-world projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0269.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: fractional derivative; Arnold Transform; XOR involving fractional order chaotic sequence; encryption and decryption
Online: 16 December 2021 (11:52:50 CET)
In view of the problem of cracking easily and partial distortion of images after encryption or decryption, a novel image encryption and decryption algorithm based on Arnod Transform and fractional chaotic is proposed. To begin with, the Arnold transform is used to encrypt. So that the spatial confidence of the original image has been comprehensively disturbed. Secondly, the XOR involving the fractional order chaotic sequence is used to encrypt. The key sequence is dynamically generated to ensure the randomness and difference of key generation. When decryption is required, the first decryption is performed using the key and XOR. Then the second decryption is carried out by using the inverse Arnold transform, and finally the decrypted image is obtained. Experimental results show that the improved algorithm has achieved better performance in encryption and decryption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0536.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: open-pit coal mine; dewatering; groundwater level; vadose zone; moisture movement; capillary water
Online: 24 February 2021 (09:55:58 CET)
Long-term dewatering of groundwater is a necessary operation for mining safety in open-pit coal mines, while extensive dewatering might cause ecological problems due to dramatical changes of moisture movement in the soil, especially in ecological-fragile areas. This paper presents a quantitative methodology to evaluate the impact of the coal mining operation on moisture movement in the vadose zone by taking the Baorixile open-pit coal mine as an example. A long-term in-situ experiments（from 2004 to 2018), laboratory analysis and numerical modelling were conducted to analyse the mechanisms and relationship among the dropping groundwater level, the vadose-zone moistures, and the ecological responses in the grassland area. The experiment data and modelling results suggest that groundwater level dropping during open-pit mining operation has limited influence on the vadose zone, exhibiting a variation of capillary water zone within a depth of 3 m while the vadose zone and soil water zone were at least 16 m deep. The critical evaporation depth of ground water is 8 m. The long-term influence radius of groundwater dewatering is about 2.72 km during the Baorixile mining operation, and the groundwater level change mainly influences the lower part of the intermediate vadose zone and the capillary water zone below 16 m, with little influence on the moisture contents in the soil water zone where the roots of shallow vegetation grow. The results from this study provide useful insight for sustainable development of coal mining in ecological-fragile areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0346.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: INS/APS single beacon navigation; tightly coupled navigation; passive synthetic aperture; joint DOA/OWTT estimation
Online: 21 February 2023 (01:56:42 CET)
Unlike aerial or terrestrial navigation, the Global Navigation satellite system (GNSS) is not available underwater. This is a big challenge for underwater navigation. The inertial navigation system (INS) aided by the single-beacon acoustic positioning system (APS) provides one solution, but the long-range case is limited by low SNR conditions. Inspired by passive synthetic aperture detection, we proposed a new tightly coupled navigation algorithm based on spatial synthesis and one-way-travel-time (OWTT) range measurement. We design two estimators: the DOA/Range estimator using the model-based method and the tightly coupled INS/APS navigation estimator. Based on the improved UKF, all information is combined. Simulation is carried out in MATLAB. Compared with range-only tightly coupled INS/APS navigation, synthetic long baseline (SLBL) algorithm and Doppler velocity logger (DVL) aided centralized extended Kalman filter (CEKF) based single beacon INS/OWTT navigation, the proposed method's performance is proven. The main contributions of this work are: 1. Propose a new architecture of underwater integrated navigation; 2. Apply the passive acoustic detecting method in the navigation to improve accuracy. 3. Apply the tightly coupled method to improve availability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1382.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Silica nanoparticles; COX-2; PGE2; Alveolar epithelial cells; ROS; FoxO1
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:37:29 CEST)
The risk of lung exposure to silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) and related lung inflammatory injury is increasing with the wide application of SiNPs in a variety of industries. A growing body of research has revealed that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2/ prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) up-regulated by SiNPs toxicity has a role during pulmonary inflammation. The detailed mechanisms underlying SiNPs-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 synthesis remain unknown. The present study aims to dissect the molecular components involved in COX-2/PGE2 up-regulated by SiNPs in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs) which are one of the major targets while SiNPs are inhaled. In the present study, we demonstrated that SiNPs induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 release, which were inhibited by pretreatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger (edaravone) or the inhibitors of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2, PF-431396), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, AG1478), phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K, LY294002), protein kinase B (Akt, Akt inhibitor VIII), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (p38 MAPK inhibitor VIII), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)1/2 (SP600125), Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1, AS1842856), and activator protein 1 (AP-1, Tanshinone IIA). In addition, we also found that SiNPs induced ROS-dependent Pyk2, EGFR, Akt, p38 MAPK, and JNK1/2 activation in these cells. These signaling pathways induced by SiNPs could further cause c-Jun and FoxO1 activation and translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus. AP-1 and FoxO1 activation could increase COX-2 and PGE2 levels induced by SiNPs. Finally, the COX-2/PGE2 axis might promote the inflammatory responses in HPAEpiCs. In conclusion, we suggested that SiNPs induced COX-2 expression accompanied by PGE2 synthesis mediated via ROS/Pyk2/EGFR/PI3K/Akt/p38 MAPK- and JNK1/2-dependent FoxO1 and AP-1 activation in HPAEpiCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0206.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Clostridium difficile; ST201; binary toxin-positive; whole genome sequencing; comparative genomic analysis
Online: 30 May 2017 (06:15:11 CEST)
A novel binary toxin-positive non-027, non-078 Clostridium difficile strain designated LC693 whose sequence type was ST201 was isolated from the fecal sample of a patient with severe diarrhea in China. To understand the pathogenesis basis of C. difficile ST201, this recently recovered isolate LC693 was then chosen for whole genome sequencing. The project finally generated an estimated genome size of approximately 4.07 Mbp. The genome sequence was then analyzed together with the other two ST201 strains VL-0104 and VL-0391 and compared to the epidemic 027/ST1 and 078/ST11 strains. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the ST201 strains belonged to clade 3. Genome size of the three ST201 strains ranged from 4.07 Mb~4.16 Mb, with an average GC content between 28.5%~28.9%. The ST201 genomes contained more than 40 antibiotic resistance genes and 15 of them were predicted to be associated with vancomycin-resistance, suggesting that they may have a strong antibiotic resistance. The ST201 strains contained a typical clade 3 specific PaLoc with a Tn6218 element inserted, and those genes harbored on their PaLoc that participated in the toxin expression and regulation were highly homologues to the epidemic 027 and 078 strains, with the exception of tcdC. A truncated TcdC was found in the ST201 strains, which is suggestive to have a contribution to the toxin production of the ST201 strains. In addition, the ST201 strains contained intact binary toxin coding and regulation genes, which is also proposed to contribute to the virulence. Genome comparison of the ST201 strains with the epidemic 027 and 078 strain identified 641 genes specific for the C. difficile ST201, and a number of them were predicted as fitness and virulence associated genes. The identification of those genes also contributes to the pathogenesis of the ST201 strain. To our knowledge, this is the first study that the genome sequence of C. difficile ST201 was discussed in detail, and the present study would have a contribution to understanding the pathogenesis basis of C. difficile ST201.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1527.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Other Keywords: high grade serous ovarian cancer; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; prognostic index
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:31:01 CEST)
Background: A prognostic index validated for the outcomes of advanced high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is still lacking. We therefore developed an ovarian neoadjuvant chemotherapy prognostic index (ONCPI) to enhance predictive accuracy. Methods: We analyzed clinicopathologic feature of advanced HGSOC patients receiving platinum-based NACT. Blood inflammatory composite markers were calculated and binary-transformed by optimal cutoffs. The omental hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides were selected for the assessment of chemotherapy response score (CRS). Logistic regression analyses and Cox proportional hazard regression model were utilized to develop a prognostic index. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that CRS and neutrophils-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) are independent risk factors for platinum-chemotherapy response. Meanwhile, Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analysis revealed that CRS score was significantly correlated with PFS and OS, and NLR-high patients was associated with poor OS. We further developed an ONCPI model based on the CRS score and NLR level. Survival analysis suggested that patients with score 0 and 1 of ONCPI were significantly associated with improved PFS and OS. Conclusions: The ONCPI score emerges as a significant prognostic marker for predicting NACT outcomes in advanced HGSOC patients. Its integration into clinical practice and risk-stratified trial design is conceivable.