COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1187.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: galectin-3; cardiac hypertrophy; immunohistochemical expression; heart transplantation; heart disease; cardiorenal syndrome
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:42:54 CEST)
Background: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) overexpression is associated with fibroblastic proliferation and the production of collagen, resulting in increased cardiac fibrosis and remodelling. Aim of the study was to investigate on the expression of Gal-3 in hypertrophic hearts. We examined 19 surgical specimens taken from interventricular septum of 8 patients with Tetralogy of Fallot, 4 patients with aortic valve stenosis, 1 cardiac explant affected from dilated cardiomyopathy, and 6 myocardial biopsies of patients submitted to heart transplantation. Methods: All the samples were routinely processed, stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin, Trichromic stain and elastic fiber stain and selected by having the morphological features of myocardial hy-pertrophy: myocytolysis, nuclear pleomorphism, interstitial fibrosis. Results: At immunohistochemistry, myocardial fibers showed cytoplasmic expression of Gal-3 in the 4 patients with aortic valve stenosis (diffuse in 3 and mild in 1), in the 1 patient with cardiac explant (mild) and in the 4/6 transplanted hearts (mild and focal in 3 and diffuse in 1). The 8 patients affected from Tetralogy of Fallot and 2 patients with transplanted hearts resulted negative. Conclusions: The results agreed with the hypothesis that Gal-3 may play a role in cardiac hyper-trophy; its expression in myocardial fibers is not related with the morphological aspects as suggested by the absence in pediatric cases. The presence in myocardial biopsies taken from transplanted hearts would suggest a possible role in predicting clinical outcome of such patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1990.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: ChatGPT; chatbot; Artificial Intelligence; AI; Pathology; Histology
Online: 29 August 2023 (13:15:21 CEST)
Abstract: The advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has in just a few years invested multiple areas of knowledge, also affecting the medical-scientific sector. An increasing number of AI-based applications have been developed, among which conversational AI has emerged. Among these, ChatGPT has risen to the headlines, scientific and otherwise, for its distinct propensity to simulate a 'real' discussion with its interlocutor, based on appropriate prompts. Although several clinical studies using ChatGPT have already been published in the literature, very little has yet been written about its potential application in human pathology. We conduct a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Re-views and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, using PubMed and Scopus as databases, with the fol-lowing keywords: ChatGPT OR Chat GPT, in combination with each of the following: Pathology, di-ag-nostic pathology, anatomic pathology. A total of 90 records were initially identified in the literature search, of which 6 were duplicates. After screening for eligibility and inclusion criteria, only 5 publications were ultimately included. The majority of publications were original articles (n = 2), followed by case reports (n = 1), letter to the editor (n = 1) and review (n = 1). Although the premises are exciting and ChatGPT is able to co-advise the pathologist in providing large amounts of scientific data for use in routine microscopic diagnostic practice, there are many limitations that need to be addressed and resolved, with the caveat that an AI-driven system should always provide support and never a decision-making motive during the anatomo-pathological diagnostic process.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0305.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: mature triphyllic cystic teratoma; posterior mediastinum; fetal teratoma; germ cell tumor; prenatal diagnosis
Online: 18 September 2023 (07:14:56 CEST)
A teratoma is a neoplasm composed of cell populations or tissues that remind, in their appearance, normal elements derived from at least two embryonic layers. Fetal mature teratomas are normally benign, cystic, and typically occur along the midline, while they are rare in the posterior mediastinum. Teratomas are frequently solitary, however they may sometimes be associated with other congenital anomalies and/or with chromosomal abnormalities. Clinically, they are often asymptomatic but can occasionally cause compression symptoms. Prenatal diagnoses are uncommon and made with ultrasonography; differential diagnosis with other congenital conditions is mandatory. We report the case of a 21 weeks of gestational age-old fetus with a Mature Triphyllic Fetal Cystic Teratoma, grade 0, located in the right posterior mediastinum.