Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC grid; Distortion; Electromagnetic compatibility; Inrush; Microgrid; Power Quality; Pulsed power loads; Resonance; Ripple; supraharmonics; Transients
Online: 2 August 2021 (16:11:02 CEST)
The work addresses the problem of Power Quality (PQ) metrics (or indexes) suitable for DC grids, encompassing Low and Medium Voltage applications, including electric transports, all-electric ships and aircrafts, electric vehicles, distributed generation and microgrids, modern data centers, etc. The two main pillars on which such PQ indexes are discussed and built are: i) the physical justification, so the electric phenomena affecting DC grids and components (PV panels, fuel cells, capacitors, batteries, etc.), causing e.g. stress of materials, ageing, distortion, grid instability; ii) the existing standardization framework, pointing out desirable coverage and extension, similarity with AC grids standards, but also inconsistencies. The first point is made more clear and usable by a graphical overview of the discussed phenomena. On this basis PQ is interpreted beyond the usual low-frequency range, including thus supraharmonics and common-mode disturbance, and filling the gap with the Electromagnetic Compatibility domain. However, phenomena typical of EMC and electrical safety (such as various types of overvoltages and fast transients) are excluded. Suitable PQ indexes are then reviewed, suggesting integrations and modifications, to cover the relevant phenomena and technological progress, and to better follow the normative exigencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0345.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Electrified railway; Fourier transform; Harmonic resonance; Overvoltage; Power Quality; Traction power supply
Online: 15 July 2021 (09:35:34 CEST)
Harmonic resonances are part of the Power Quality (PQ) problems of electrified railways and have serious consequences for the continuity of service and integrity of components in terms of overvoltage stress. The interaction between Traction Power Stations (TPSs) and trains that causes line resonances is briefly reviewed showing the dependence on infrastructure conditions. The objective is real-time monitoring of resonance conditions seen first of all from the onboard panto-graph interface, but it is equally applicable at TPS terminals. Voltage and current spectra, and de-rived impedance and power spectra, are analyzed proposing compact and efficient methods based on Short-Time Fourier Transform, suitable for real-time implementation with the hardware avail-able for energy metering and harmonic interference monitoring. The methods are tested by sweeping long recordings taken at some European railways, covering cases of longer and shorter supply sections, with a range of resonance frequencies of about one decade. They give insight into the spectral behavior of resonances, their dependency on position and change over time, and criteria to recognize genuine infrastructure resonances from rolling stock emissions.