DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0349.v1
Online: 18 August 2022 (11:12:25 CEST)
The Peruvian creole cattle (PCC) is a neglected breed, and is an essential livestock resource in the Andean region of Peru. To develop a modern breeding program and conservation strategies for the PCC, a better understanding of the genetics of this breed is needed. We sequenced the whole genome of the PCC using a paired-end 150 strategy on the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform, obtaining 320 GB of sequencing data. The obtained genome size of the PCC was 2.77 Gb with a contig N50 of 108Mb and 92.59% complete BUSCOs. Also, we identified 40.22% of repetitive DNA of the genome assembly, of which retroelements occupy 32.39% of the total genome. A total of 19,803 protein-coding genes were annotated in the PCC genome. We downloaded proteomes and genomes of the Bovinae subfamily, and conducted a comparative analysis with our draft genome. Phylogenomic analysis showed that PCC is related to Bos indicus. Also, we identified 7,746 family genes shared among the Bovinae subfamily. This first PCC genome is expected to contribute to a better understanding of its genetics to adapt to the tough conditions of the Andean ecosystem, and evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Andean agriculture; Indigenous communities; Lluta Valley; Chilean Precordillera
Online: 4 March 2021 (14:04:47 CET)
The Region of Arica and Parinacota is characterized as an agricultural region located in Atacama Desert at the extreme north of Chile. Its agriculture has allow developing the economy of pre- and post-Hispanic communities, which have been settled since colonial times at different locations in the region. This article is focused on how Aymara communities of Lluta Valley and Precordillera of Arica and Parinacota Region have been included as part of Chilean population, particularly, from social and economic point of view. Furthermore, a characterization of agronomic aspects of the main towns of this zone, and commercialization of agricultural and livestock is included. It must be considered that the evolution of this region would have an important impact in the safeguard on endemic flora and fauna so that it is imperative to protect the genetic heritage of local species and to promote new technologies which allow the production of commercial products from Arica and Parinacota Region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0702.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Andean microalgae consumption; Atacama; cyanobacteria; Llayta; microethnography; Nostoc
Online: 30 October 2018 (04:43:02 CET)
Llayta is a dietary supplement used by rural communities in Perú and northern Chile since pre-Columbian days. Llayta is the biomass of colonies of a Nostoc cyanobacterium grown in wetlands of the Andean highlands, harvested, sun-dried and sold as an ingredient for human consumption. The biomass has a substantial content of essential amino acids (58% of total amino acids) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (33% total fatty acids). This ancestral practice is being loss and the causes were investigated by an ethnographic approach to register the social representations of Llayta, to document how this Andean feeding practice is perceived and how much the community knows about Llayta. Only 37% of the participants (mostly adults) have had a direct experience with Llayta; other participants (mostly children) did not have any knowledge about it. These social responses reflect anthropological and cultural tensions associated to lack of knowledge on Andean algae, sites where to find Llayta, where it is commercialized, how it is cooked and on its nutritional benefits. The loss of this ancestral feeding practice, mostly on northern Chile, is probably associated to cultural changes, migration of the rural communities, and a very limited access to the available information. We propose that Llayta consumption can be revitalized by developing appropriate educational strategies and investigating potential new food derivatives based on the biomass from the isolated Llayta cyanobacterium.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0057.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Andean fox; canids; carnivore ecology; Neotropical region; top predator; wolves
Online: 5 July 2020 (09:06:08 CEST)
A deep review of the existing literature on the culpeo ecology is carried out, using scientific articles, book chapters and web resources. For information published before 1988, the synthesis made by a previous report was used. For subsequent information, bibliographic searches were carried out through the main servers, considering all of the generic names used to define the species so far. From this update, new general patterns on ecology, behavior and conservation concerns about culpeos are described. Gaps in current knowledge have been identified and new lines of research are proposed.Most of the studies focused on diet, conflicts with the species in livestock areas, and on the use of space and habitat. We found an incomplete, poor justification for all of the proposed subspecies and their supposed geographical distribution, as well as a scarcity of studies on genetic issues, population dynamics and conservation concerns. It is remarkable that vast regions in South America holding culpeos lacked basic information on the species.Diet studies describe a marked trend towards resources selection at the local level, which supports the view of the culpeo as a facultative trophic specialist. In addition, it has been confirmed that in the high Andes the culpeo is also a top predator that may regulate carnivorous communities, as well as that in arid environments culpeos can act as important seed dispersers. The assessment of the conservation status of the species differs among regions, although there is no sufficient information to reach clear conclusions in most cases. Even so, in Ecuador and Colombia the species has been listed as ‘Vulnerable’. Direct persecution and habitat alteration are considered to be the most important threats that the species is facing in many countries, although other risk factors such as climate change could also have serious consequences for the canid at the global scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0212.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Main Agroecological Structure; agroecology; Andean agroecosystems; agrobiodiversity index; cultural dimensions; farmer awareness
Online: 14 July 2022 (11:28:29 CEST)
The agro-biodiversity present in agro-ecosystems is fundamental in guaranteeing sustainability and resilience. However, there are very few proposals for evaluating it and, even less, ones that include indicators to analyze the influence of the structural and spatial configuration of a landscape in order to favor agro-biodiversity connectivity to productive systems, management and conservation practices, and the producer (farmer)’s perceptions, awareness and ability to favor it on his farm. The Main Agro-ecological Structure MAS is redefined as an environmental agro-biodiversity index. New indicators are established for a total of 10 criteria and 29 indicators of systems that describe the agro-biodiversity of agro-ecosystems. Methodologies for its evaluation are also described, and the possibility of adapting certain indicators according to the ecological and cultural contexts where the farms are located is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0327.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: El Teniente Cu-Mo deposit; Andean magmatism; subduction erosion; mantle source region contamination; hafnium isotopes
Online: 8 September 2019 (17:22:48 CEST)
We have determined Hf isotopic compositions of 12 samples associated with the giant El Teniente Cu-Mo deposit, Chile. The samples range in age from ≥8.9 to 2.3 Ma and provide information about the temporal evolution of their magmatic sources from the Late Miocene to Pliocene. Together with previously published data, the new analysis indicate a temporal decrease of 10 εHf(t) units, from +11.6 down to +1.6, in the 12.7 m.y. from 15 to 2.3 Ma. These variations imply increasing incorporation of continental crust through time in the magmas that formed these rocks. The fact that the samples include mantle-derived olivine basalts and olivine lamprophyres suggests that these continental components were incorporated into their mantle source, and not by intra-crustal contamination (MASH). We attribute the increase, between the Middle Miocene and Pliocene, of crustal components in the subarc mantle source below El Teniente to be due to increased subduction erosion and transport of crust into the mantle. The deposit formed above a large, long-lived, vertically zoned magma chamber that developed due to compressive deformation and persisted between the period ~7 to 4.6 Ma. Progressively more hydrous mantle-derived mafic magmas feed this chamber from below, providing heat, H2O, S and metals, but no unique “fertile” Cu-rich magma was involved in the formation of the deposit. As the volume of these mantle-derived magmas decreased from the Late Miocene into the Pliocene, the chamber crystallized and solidified, producing felsic plutons and large metal-rich magmatic-hydrothermal breccias that emplaced Cu and S into the older (≥8.9 Ma) mafic host rocks of this megabreccia deposit.