ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0399.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Urban Heat Island; Building Footprint; Remote Sensing; ASTER; New York City
Online: 19 August 2021 (10:35:33 CEST)
Urban areas have very complex spatial structures. These spatial structures are primarily composed of a complex network of built environments, which evolve rapidly as the cities expand to meet the growing population’s demand and economic development. Therefore, studying the impact of spatial structures on urban heat patterns is extremely important for sustainable urban planning and growth. We investigated the relationship between surface temperature obtained by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER, at 90 m spatial resolution) on the current EOS-Terra platform and different urban components based on the classification of high-resolution QuickBird imagery. We further investigated the relationships between surface temperature and building footprint and land use information acquired from the New York City (NYC) Department of City Planning. The ASTER image reveals fine-scale urban heat patterns in the NYC metropolitan region. The dark and medium-dark impervious surfaces, along with bright surfaces, generate higher surface temperatures. Even with highly reflective urban materials, the presence of impervious materials leads to an increased surface temperature. At the same time, trees and shadows are effective in reducing urban heat. The data aggregated to the census tract reveals high-temperature clusters in Queens, Brooklyn, and the Bronx region of NYC. These clusters are associated with industrial and manufacturing areas and multi-family walk-up buildings as dominant land use. The census tracts with more trees and higher building height variability generate lower surface temperatures, consistent with shadow cast by high-rise buildings and trees. The results of this study can be valuable for urban heat island modeling on the effects of building heights variability and tree shadows on small-scale surface temperature patterns. It can also help identify the risk areas during extreme heat events to protect public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0034.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: vertical accuracy; photogrammetric DTM; ASTER; SRTM; TanDEM-X; orthometric height; geoid height
Online: 2 September 2020 (08:30:48 CEST)
The quality of photogrammetric-based derived products like orthophotos, digital terrain models (DTMs) and digital line maps as well as the global digital elevation models (DEM) are rigorously dependent on the accuracy of image orientation. This paper evaluates the vertical accuracy of aerial photogrammetric Digital Terrain Model (DTM), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER), and TerraSAR-X's twin satellite of TanDEM-X (TDX) datasets against in-situ orthometric heights computed from ellipsoidal heights and the 2008 Earth Gravitational Model (EGM2008) derived geoid heights in Ethiopia. The quality of the four global digital elevation models was also validated against the aerial photogrammetric DTM measurements. Besides, the accuracies of the photogrammetric DTM and the four DEM products were checked for their compliance to the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) standards as well as the Ethiopian national vertical data evaluation standards. The study showed that the photogrammetric DTM is in a good agreement with the reference orthometric heights compared to SRTM, ASTER and TDX datasets. More precisely, the result has an absolute accuracy of 1.67 m at Linear Error (LE) 95% confidence level, while the absolute accuracy of SRTM3 arc seconds (SRTM3) at LE 90% (11.91 m) is better than its product specification (16 m). The absolute accuracy of SRTM1 arc second (SRTM1) (7.70 m at LE 90%) surpasses that of SRTM3, whereas the absolute accuracy of ASTER DEM is somehow below its product specification. TDX also has the same vertical accuracy (10.29 m at LE 90%) compared to its product specification (10 m). Furthermore, the vertical accuracy of the photogrammetric DTM meets the100 cm vertical accuracy of the 2015 ASPRS standard. However, it does not meet the Ethiopian national vertical data accuracy requirement standard, i.e., RMSEz of ± 0.45 m. In general, the photogrammetric DTM, SRTM1, and TDX have been proven a superior product over the SRTM3 and ASTER DEMs, and better to use these products for high-level precision and accuracy required applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0062.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: ASTER instrument, stereo, digital elevation model, global database, optical sensor, water body detection.
Online: 3 October 2018 (17:01:08 CEST)
A waterbody detection technique is an essential part of digital elevation model (DEM) generation to delineate land-water boundaries and set flattened elevations. This paper describes the technical methodology for improving the initial tile-based waterbody data that are created during production of the ASTER GDEM, because without improvement such tile-based waterbody data are not suitable for incorporating into the new ASTER GDEM Version 3. Waterbodies are classified into three categories: sea, lake, and river. For sea-waterbodies, the effect of sea ice is removed to better delineate sea shorelines in high latitude areas, because sea ice prevents accurate delineation of sea shorelines. For lake-waterbodies, the major part of the processing is to set the unique elevation value for each lake using a mosaic image that covers the entire lake area. Rivers present a unique challenge, because their elevations gradually step down from upstream to downstream. Initially, visual inspection is required to separate rivers from lakes. A stepwise elevation assignment, with a step of one meter, is carried out by manual or automated methods, depending on the situation. The ASTER GWBD product consists of a global set of 1º latitude-by-1º longitude tiles containing water body attribute and elevation data files in geographic latitude and longitude coordinates and with one arc second posting. Each tile contains 3601-by-3601 data points. All improved waterbody elevation data are incorporated into the ASTER GDEM to reflect the improved results.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: gold deposit; alteration information; ASTER image; support vector machine (SVM); principal component analysis (PCA)
Online: 22 October 2019 (04:26:18 CEST)
Dayaoshan, as an important metal ore producing area in China, is faced with the dilemma of resource depletion due to long-term exploitation. In this paper, remote sensing method is used to circle the favorable metallogenic areas and find new ore points for Gulong. Firstly, vegetation interference bas been removed by using mixed pixel decomposition method with hyperplane and genetic algorithm (GA) optimization; then, altered mineral distribution information has been extracted based on principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) method; Thirdly, the favorable areas of gold mining in Gulong has been delineated by using ant colony algorithm (ACA) optimization SVM model to remove false altered minerals; Lastly, field survey verified that the extracted alteration mineralization information is correct and effective. The results show that the mineral alteration extraction method proposed in this paper has certain guiding significance for metallogenic prediction by remote sensing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0089.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: ASTER; TIR; geology; mineralogy; suture zone; quartz; feldspars; silicates; carbonates; sulfates; granitic rocks; felsic; ultramafic; mapping
Online: 9 August 2016 (10:10:41 CEST)
The mineralogical indices, e.g., Quartz Index (QI), Carbonate Index (CI), Mafic Index (MI) for ASTER multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) data have been applied to various geological materials. The indices are proved to be robust in extracting geological information at the local scale. Considering the relatively narrow spatial coverage of each ASTER scene compared to LANDSAT, many scenes are needed when mosaicking the images to be mapped at regional scales. We develop a system to search ASTER data for a target area given the vast and expanding ASTER data archive. The data is then conditioned, prioritized, and the indices are calculated before finally mosaicking the imagery. The maps of the indices covering the very wide region of the central Tibetan Plateau are produced with this system. The characteristic features of the indices relating to their geology in the study area are analyzed and discussed. Many interesting lithological and structural information that are not currently well understood in the central Tibetan Plateau, the highest and most extensive plateau in the world, with an average elevation of over 4,500 meters above sea level, for example, distributions of the mafic-ultramafic rocks along the suture zones, the quarzitic and marine sedimentology accreted to the Eurasian continent and sulfate layers related to the Tethys and neo-Tethys geological setting can be retrieved from the processed ASTER images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0475.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: food bioactive compunds; stokes aster ethanolic extarcts; health effects; antiproliferative activity; Caco2 cells; docking; human tankyrase 1
Online: 28 September 2021 (14:23:04 CEST)
In this study, five polyphenol compounds (reference substances, ref.) were added to Stokesia laevis (Slae26) ethanolic extract (5 mg GAE / mL) in order to test their antiproliferative effects on human colon tumor cell line Caco-2 (ATCC-HTB-37). The five phenolics (ref.) are luteolin-7-O-glucoside (orientin), luteolin-8-C-glucoside (cinnaroside), caffeic acid, gentisic acid and para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and they were combined in ratio 1:1 between the active compounds in samples (GAE : ref.). Results indicated certain antiproliferative effects of Slae26 (IC50=36 μg GAE/mL sample), of the five reference compounds, but mainly of Slae26 combinations with the five phenolics tested (ref.). Punctually, there were obtained IC50 values around 5 μg/mL sample, signifying real therapeutic usefulness and antitumor potency of Slae26 combinations with the five food bioactive compounds tested. In silico docking studies provided potential therapeutic agents to inhibit the catalytic domain of human tankyrase 1 (TNKS1) in the series of food bioactive compounds tested, and revealed luteolin-7-O-glucoside high effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0145.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Open source; FEA; finite element analysis; linear static structural; Code Aster; Salome Meca; Mecway; SimScale; Z88, CAE
Online: 28 September 2017 (14:58:31 CEST)
The aim of this work was to determine if the development of low-cost or no-cost finite element analysis (FEA) software has advanced to the point where it can be used in place of trusted commercial FEA packages for linear static structural analyses using isotropic material models. Nonlinear structural analysis will be covered in a separate paper. Several suitable packages were identified, these underwent a process of systematic elimination when they were unable to meet the minimum imposed qualitative criteria. Three packages were chosen to be subjected to performance benchmarking, namely: Code_Aster/Salome Meca; Mecway and Z88 Aurora. SimScale, a browser-based analysis package was included as well because it met all the baseline criteria and has the potential to offer a completely cloud-based approach to computer aided engineering, potentially reshaping the way an engineering business views its operational capabilities. This paper presents the test cases and simulation results for packages that fall under the linear static structural analysis type.