Vázquez Alberdi, L.; Rosso, G.; Velóz, L.; Romeo, C.; Farias, J.; Di Tomaso, M.V.; Calero, M.; Kun, A. Curcumin and Ethanol Effects in Trembler-J Schwann Cell Culture. Biomolecules2022, 12, 515.
Vázquez Alberdi, L.; Rosso, G.; Velóz, L.; Romeo, C.; Farias, J.; Di Tomaso, M.V.; Calero, M.; Kun, A. Curcumin and Ethanol Effects in Trembler-J Schwann Cell Culture. Biomolecules 2022, 12, 515.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) syndrome is the most common progressive human motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy. CMT type 1E is a demyelinating neuropathy affecting Schwann cells due to pmp22 mutations, modelized by Trembler-J mice. Curcumin, a natural polyphenol com-pound obtained from turmeric (Curcuma longa), exhibits dose- and time-varying antitumor, antioxidant and neuroprotective properties, however, the neurotherapeutic actions of curcumin still remain elusive. Here, we propose curcumin as a possible natural treatment capable of enhancing cellular detoxification mechanisms, resulting in an improvement of the neurodegenerative Trembler-J phenotype. Using a refined method for obtaining enriched Schwann cell cultures, we evaluated the neurotherapeutic action of low dose curcumin treatment on the PMP22 expression, and on the chaperones (HSF1 and Hsp27) and autophagy/mTOR (HDAC6 and ribosomes) pathways in Trembler-J and wild-type genotypes. In wild-type Schwann cells, the action of cur-cumin resulted in strong stimulation of the chaperone and macroautophagy pathway, whereas the modulation of ribophagy showed a mild effect. However, despite the promising neuroprotective effects for the treatment of neurological diseases, we report (demonstrate?) that the action of cur-cumin in Trembler-J Schwann cells could be impaired due to the irreversible impact of ethanol used as a common curcumin vehicle necessary for administration. These results contribute to expand our still limited understanding of PMP22 biology in neurobiology, and expose the intrinsic lability of the neurodegenerative Trembler-J genotype. Furthermore, they unravel interesting physiological mechanisms of cellular resilience relevant for to the pharmacological treatment of the neurodegenerative Tremble J phenotype with curcumin and ethanol. We conclude that the analysis of the effects of the vehicle itself is an essential and in-escapable step to comprehensibly assess the own effects and full potential of curcumin treatment for therapeutic purposes.
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