Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Cross Entropy Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy Solving the Bi-Level Bidding Optimization Problem in Local Energy Markets with Renewables

Version 1 : Received: 7 December 2021 / Approved: 8 December 2021 / Online: 8 December 2021 (14:47:52 CET)

How to cite: Dabhi, D.; Pandya, K.; Soares, J.; Lezama, F.; Vale, Z. Cross Entropy Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy Solving the Bi-Level Bidding Optimization Problem in Local Energy Markets with Renewables. Preprints 2021, 2021120141 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202112.0141.v1). Dabhi, D.; Pandya, K.; Soares, J.; Lezama, F.; Vale, Z. Cross Entropy Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy Solving the Bi-Level Bidding Optimization Problem in Local Energy Markets with Renewables. Preprints 2021, 2021120141 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202112.0141.v1).

Abstract

Abstract: The increased penetration of renewables in distribution power systems has motivated researchers to take significant interest in local energy transactions. The major goal of Local Energy Markets (LEM) is to promote the participation of small consumers in energy transactions and providing an opportunity for transactive energy systems. Such energy transactions in LEM are considered as a bi-level optimization problem in which all agents at upper and lower levels try to maximize their profits. But typical bi-level problem is very complex as it is inherently nonlinear, discontinued and strongly NP-hard. So, this article proposes the application of hybridized Cross Entropy Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CE-CMAES) to tackle such a complex bi-level problem of LEM. The proposed CE-CMAES secured the 1st rank in Testbed-2 entitled, “Bi-level optimization of end-users’ bidding strategies in local energy markets (LM)” at international competitions on Smart Grid Problems, held at GECCO 2020 and WCCI 2020. CE method is used for global exploration of search space and CMAES is used for local exploitation as its adaptive step-size mechanism prevents its premature convergence. A practical distribution system with renewable energy penetration is considered for simulation. The comparative analysis shows that the overall cost, mean fitness and Ranking Index (R.I) obtained from CE-CMAES are superior to those obtained from the state-of-the-art participated algorithms. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Statistical test also proves that CE-CMAES is statistically different from the tested algorithms.

Keywords

Bi-level Problem; Covariance Matrix; Cross-Entropy Method; Local Energy Market; Optimal Bidding

Subject

ENGINEERING, Electrical & Electronic Engineering

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